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Use of Grape Pomace Phenolics to Counteract Endogenous and Exogenous Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products

1
Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
2
DeFENS, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081917
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract

The increase in consumption of “ultra-processed” foods has raised attention because of the possible adverse effects deriving from the Maillard reaction leading to the formation of toxic advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) during food processing. Additionally, the increasing trend and consumption of sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages is related to the endogenous formation of the same toxic compounds. However, ultra-processing in the context of food technology can bring challenges as well as a wealth of opportunities. Indeed, re-processing of grape pomace, a by-product of winemaking, can yield phenolic-rich fractions that efficiently counteract the effects of AGEs. In this review, the process of endogenous and exogenous AGE formation is illustrated. Then, the ability of grape phenolics to act as inhibitors of AGE formation is presented, including the efficacy ranking of various individual compounds measured in vitro and the outcome of in vivo double-blinded randomized crossover trials designed to prove the efficacy of grape phenolics as inhibitors of protein carbonylation. Finally, a survey of model functional foods added with grape phenolics, either to lower the dietary load of AGEs or to deliver antiglycation agents in vivo is listed in order to highlight the opportunity to develop safe and tailor-made “anti-AGEs” food applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced glycation end-products; Maillard reaction; Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine; grape phenolics advanced glycation end-products; Maillard reaction; Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine; grape phenolics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sri Harsha, P.S.C.; Lavelli, V. Use of Grape Pomace Phenolics to Counteract Endogenous and Exogenous Formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1917.

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