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Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Body Composition and Metabolic Risk Factors in Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria
2
Division of Obstetrics, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 14/1, 8036 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081894
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
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Abstract

Vitamin D might play a role in metabolic processes and obesity. We therefore examined vitamin D effects on metabolic markers and obesity in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). This is a post-hoc analysis of the Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT, a single-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. We included 200 healthy men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels <75 nmol/L. Subjects received 20,000 IU of vitamin D3/week (n = 100) or placebo (n = 100) for 12 weeks. Outcome measures were metabolic markers, anthropometric measures, and body composition assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. One-hundred and ninety-two men completed the study. We found a significant treatment effect on fasting glucose/fasting insulin ratio (−5.3 (−10.4 to −0.2), p = 0.040), whereas we observed no significant effect on the remaining outcome parameters. In subgroup analyses of men with baseline 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L (n = 80), we found a significant effect on waist circumference (1.6 (0.3 to 2.9) cm, p = 0.012), waist-to-hip ratio (0.019 (0.002 to 0.036), p = 0.031), total body fat (0.029 (0.004 to 0.055) %, p = 0.026), and android fat (1.18 (0.11 to 2.26) %, p = 0.010). In middle-aged healthy men, vitamin D treatment had a negative effect on insulin sensitivity. In vitamin D deficient men, vitamin D has an unfavorable effect on central obesity and body composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; randomized controlled trial; insulin sensitivity; obesity; body composition vitamin D; randomized controlled trial; insulin sensitivity; obesity; body composition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lerchbaum, E.; Trummer, C.; Theiler-Schwetz, V.; Kollmann, M.; Wölfler, M.; Pilz, S.; Obermayer-Pietsch, B. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Body Composition and Metabolic Risk Factors in Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1894.

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