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Gender Differences in Phytoestrogens and the Relationship with Speed of Processing in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of NHANES, 1999–2002

1
Center for Healthy Aging, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
2
Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
3
The Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1780; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081780
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
Sex hormone changes in adults are known to play a part in aging, including cognitive aging. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens can mimic estrogenic effects on brain function. Since sex hormones differ between genders, it is important to examine gender differences in the phytoestrogen–cognition association. Therefore, the goal of this study is to examine the relationship between urinary phytoestrogens and speed of processing (SOP) and the variation of the association between genders in older adults. Participants were drawn from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 354 individuals aged 65–85 years old. General linear models (GLMs) were used to test for significant gender differences in the relationship between phytoestrogens and SOP. Results from the GLMs showed significant gender differences in the relationship between genistein and SOP. Higher levels of genistein were associated with better SOP in women. This relationship was reversed in men: higher genistein levels were associated with worse performance. Results indicate that there are distinct gender differences in the relationship between genistein and SOP. These results emphasize the importance of considering gender differences when devising dietary and pharmacologic interventions that target phytoestrogens to improve brain health. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytoestrogens; gender differences; cognition; genistein; speed of processing; older adults; aging phytoestrogens; gender differences; cognition; genistein; speed of processing; older adults; aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alwerdt, J.; Patterson, A.D.; Sliwinski, M.J. Gender Differences in Phytoestrogens and the Relationship with Speed of Processing in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of NHANES, 1999–2002. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1780. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081780

AMA Style

Alwerdt J, Patterson AD, Sliwinski MJ. Gender Differences in Phytoestrogens and the Relationship with Speed of Processing in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of NHANES, 1999–2002. Nutrients. 2019; 11(8):1780. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081780

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alwerdt, Jessie; Patterson, Andrew D.; Sliwinski, Martin J. 2019. "Gender Differences in Phytoestrogens and the Relationship with Speed of Processing in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of NHANES, 1999–2002" Nutrients 11, no. 8: 1780. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081780

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