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Open AccessArticle

Initial Dietary Protein Intake Influence Muscle Function Adaptations in Older Men and Women Following High-Intensity Interval Training Combined with Citrulline

1
Department of Exercise Science, Groupe de Recherche en Activité Physique Adapté (GRAPA), Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC H2X 1Y4, Canada
2
Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3W 1W6, Canada
3
WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Aspects of Musculoskeletal Health and Ageing, 4000 Liège, Belgium
4
Department of biology, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC H2X 1Y4, Canada
5
Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal and Département de médecine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
6
The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre and Division of Geriatric Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A0G4, Canada
7
Université Paris Descartes, Institut de Recherche bioMédicale et d’Épidémiologie du Sport (IRMES), 75015 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071685
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frailty: Role of Nutrition and Exercise)
Background: This study evaluates whether the initial amount of dietary protein intake could influence the combined effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and citrulline (CIT), or HIIT alone, on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacities in obese older adults. Methods: Seventy-three sedentary obese older men and women who completed a 12-week elliptical HIIT program with double-blinded randomized supplementation of CIT or placebo (PLA) were divided into four groups according to their initial protein intake (CIT–PROT+: n = 21; CIT–PROT−: n = 19; PLA–PROT+: n = 19; PLA–PROT−: n = 14). Body composition (fat and fat-free masses), handgrip (HSr) strength, knee extensor (KESr) strength, muscle power, and functional capacities were measured pre-intervention and post-intervention. Results: Following the intervention, the four groups improved significantly regarding all the parameters measured. For the same initial amount of protein intake, the CIT–PROT− group decreased more gynoid fat mass (p = 0.04) than the PLA–PROT− group. The CIT–PROT+ group increased more KESr (p = 0.04) than the PLA–PROT+ group. In addition, the CIT–PROT− group decreased more gynoid FM (p = 0.02) and improved more leg FFM (p = 0.02) and HSr (p = 0.02) than the CIT–PROT+ group. Conclusion: HIIT combined with CIT induced greater positive changes than in the PLA groups. The combination seems more beneficial in participants consuming less than 1 g/kg/d of protein, since greater improvements on body composition and muscle strength were observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIIT; citrulline; protein intake; functional capacities; muscle function; aging HIIT; citrulline; protein intake; functional capacities; muscle function; aging
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Buckinx, F.; Marcangeli, V.; Pinheiro Carvalho, L.; Dulac, M.; Hajj Boutros, G.; Gouspillou, G.; Gaudreau, P.; Morais, J.; Noirez, P.; Aubertin-Leheudre, M. Initial Dietary Protein Intake Influence Muscle Function Adaptations in Older Men and Women Following High-Intensity Interval Training Combined with Citrulline. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1685.

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