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Open AccessArticle

Predictors of Dietary Diversity of Indigenous Food-Producing Households in Rural Fiji

1
Department of Medical Sciences, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, Shield and Abbott Streets, Cairns QLD 4870, Australia
2
Department of Physical Research Group, Appleton Institute, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton QLD 4702, Australia
3
Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Sigatoka Agriculture Research Station, Sigatoka, Fiji
4
Department of Agriculture, Science and the Environment, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, 6 University Drive, Bundaberg QLD 4670, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071629
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Diversity and Diet Quality)
Fiji, like other Pacific Islands, are undergoing economic and nutrition transitions that increase the risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) due to changes of the food supply and dietary intake. This study aimed to examine dietary diversity (DD) in indigenous food-producing households in rural Fiji. Surveys were conducted with households from the Nadroga-Navosa, Namosi and Ba Provinces of Western Fiji in August 2018. Participants reported on foods consumed in the previous 24 h per the Household Dietary Diversity Score. Data was analysed using multinomial logistic regression. Of the 161 households, most exhibited medium DD (66%; M = 7.8 ± 1.5). Commonly consumed foods included sweets (98%), refined grains (97%) and roots/tubers (94%). The least consumed foods were orange-fleshed fruits (23%) and vegetables (35%), eggs (25%), legumes (32%) and dairy (32%). Households with medium DD were more likely to be unemployed (OR 3.2, p = 0.017) but less likely to have ≥6 occupants (OR = 0.4, p = 0.024) or purchase food ≥2 times/week (OR = 0.2, p = 0.023). Households with low DD were more likely to have low farm diversity (OR = 5.1, p = 0.017) or be unemployed (OR = 3.7, p = 0.047) but less likely to have ≥6 occupants (OR = 0.1, p = 0.001). During nutrition transitions, there is a need for public health initiatives to promote traditional diets high in vegetables, fruits and lean protein and agricultural initiatives to promote farm diversity. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary diversity; farm diversity; food security; household; indigenous; agriculture; Fiji dietary diversity; farm diversity; food security; household; indigenous; agriculture; Fiji
MDPI and ACS Style

O’Meara, L.; Williams, S.L.; Hickes, D.; Brown, P. Predictors of Dietary Diversity of Indigenous Food-Producing Households in Rural Fiji. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1629.

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