Background: Oral supplementation of anserine/carnosine helps preserve cognitive functions in healthy older adults. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transition between cognitive-normal and dementia. Therefore, it needs to investigate whether anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) has effects on subjects with MCI. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week trial was performed. Fifty-four subjects with MCI were randomized to an active group ingesting 750 mg of anserine and 250 mg of carnosine per day or a placebo (1:1). Evaluation of cognitive change was conducted utilizing a psychometric test battery. Results: The score improvement in the global Clinical Dementia Rating (gloCDR) was superior in the active group than placebo (p
= 0.023). No beneficial effect in the active group was detected in the other psychometric tests including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Wechsler Memory Scale, and the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS). When APOE4 positive (APOE4 (+)) or negative (APOE4 (-)) subjects were separately analyzed, beneficial change in the APOE4 (+) subjects was observed in MMSE (p
= 0.025) as well as in gloCDR (p
= 0.026). Conclusions: The present study might suggest that protective effects against cognitive decline in APOE4 (+) MCI subjects exist.
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