Nutritional Deficiencies in Children with Celiac Disease Resulting from a Gluten-Free Diet: A Systematic Review
AbstractBackground: A strictly gluten-free diet (GFD) is the basis for managing celiac disease (CD). Numerous studies have reported nutritional deficiencies/imbalances ascribable to a GFD. The aim of this review is to describe nutritional deficiencies observed in children with celiac disease on a GFD, to discuss the clinical consequences related to these nutritional imbalances, and to identify strategies that may be adopted to treat them. Methods: We reviewed the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases between January 1998 and January 2019. Results: Children are, regardless of whether they are on a gluten-free diet or not, at risk of consuming too much fat and insufficient fiber, iron, vitamin D, and calcium. These imbalances may be exacerbated when children are on a gluten-free diet. In particular, the intake of folate, magnesium, zinc, and foods with a high glycemic index in children with CD who are on a GFD is significantly altered. Conclusions: Therapeutic protocols should include nutritional education to help teach subjects affected by disorders such as CD the importance of labels, the choice of foods, and the combination of macro- and micronutrients. Children with CD on a GFD should be encouraged to rotate pseudo-cereals, consume gluten-free commercial products that have been fortified or enriched, and use foods that are local and naturally gluten-free. View Full-Text
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Nardo, G.D.; Villa, M.P.; Conti, L.; Ranucci, G.; Pacchiarotti, C.; Principessa, L.; Raucci, U.; Parisi, P. Nutritional Deficiencies in Children with Celiac Disease Resulting from a Gluten-Free Diet: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1588.
Nardo GD, Villa MP, Conti L, Ranucci G, Pacchiarotti C, Principessa L, Raucci U, Parisi P. Nutritional Deficiencies in Children with Celiac Disease Resulting from a Gluten-Free Diet: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2019; 11(7):1588.Chicago/Turabian Style
Nardo, Giovanni D.; Villa, Maria P.; Conti, Laura; Ranucci, Giusy; Pacchiarotti, Claudia; Principessa, Luigi; Raucci, Umberto; Parisi, Pasquale. 2019. "Nutritional Deficiencies in Children with Celiac Disease Resulting from a Gluten-Free Diet: A Systematic Review." Nutrients 11, no. 7: 1588.
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