Food insecurity (FI) is adversely associated with physical and mental wellbeing in children. The mechanism underlying this association is assumed to be dietary intake; however, evidence has been mixed. This study examined the relationship between self-reported FI and dietary quality among low-income children. Cross-sectional data were used from TX Sprouts, a school-based cooking, gardening, and nutrition intervention. A sample of 598 children completed two 24-h dietary recalls and a questionnaire including an adapted version of the 5-item Child Food Security Assessment (CFSA). Food security was categorized as food secure or FI based on summed CFSA scores. Dietary quality was assessed using the Health Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015). Mixed effects linear regression models examined associations between FI and dietary quality. Children were 64% Hispanic, 55% female, and were 9.2 years old on average. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, BMI percentile, and energy intake, FI was associated with lower HEI-2015 total scores (β = −3.17; 95% CI = −5.28, −1.06; p
= 0.003). Compared to food secure children, FI children had lower greens and beans (2.3 vs. 1.9, p
= 0.016), seafood and plant protein (2.0 vs. 1.6, p
= 0.006), and added sugar (7.4 vs. 8.0, p
= 0.002) component scores. Interventions targeting low-income and FI children should investigate ways to improve dietary quality.
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