Background: Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) over and above that related to type 2 diabetes. The optimal diet for the treatment of metabolic syndrome is not clear. Materials and Methods: A review of dietary interventions in volunteers with metabolic syndrome as well as studies examining the impact of dietary fat on the separate components of metabolic syndrome was undertaken using only recent meta-analyses, if available. Results: Most of the data suggest that replacing carbohydrates with any fat, but particularly polyunsaturated fat, will lower triglyceride(TG), increase high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, but have no effects on fasting glucose in normal volunteers or insulin sensitivity, as assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps. Fasting insulin may be lowered by fat. Monounsaturated fat (MUFA) is preferable to polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) for fasting insulin and glucose lowering. The addition of 3–4 g of N3 fats will lower TG and blood pressure (BP) and reduce the proportion of subjects with metabolic syndrome. Dairy fat (50% saturated fat) is also related to a lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in cohort studies.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited