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Dietary Composition and Effects in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 21941-913 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Department of Internal Medicine, D’Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR), 22281-100 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1398;
Received: 26 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD))
PDF [655 KB, uploaded 21 June 2019]


Dramatic changes in the environment and human lifestyle have been associated with the rise of various chronic complex diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been proposed as a crucial pathogenic element, contributing to immune imbalances and fostering a proinflammatory milieu, which may be associated with disease relapses or even the initiation of IBD. In addition to representing important regulators of the mucosal immunity and the composition of the gut microbiota, food components have been shown to be potential environmental triggers of epigenetic modifications. In the context of chronic intestinal inflammation, dietary habits and specific food components have been implicated as important modulators of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, which may predispose a person to the increased risk of the initiation and evolution of IBD. This review provides novel insights about how dietary factors may interact with the intestinal mucosa and modulate immune homeostasis by shaping the intestinal ecosystem, as well as the potential influence of diet in the etiopathogenesis and management of IBD. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; dietary habits; food components; gut microbiota; immune homeostasis; epigenetic changes inflammatory bowel disease; dietary habits; food components; gut microbiota; immune homeostasis; epigenetic changes

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Castro, F.; de Souza, H.S.P. Dietary Composition and Effects in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1398.

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