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Individual Sensitization Pattern Recognition to Cow’s Milk and Human Milk Differs for Various Clinical Manifestations of Milk Allergy

Cow’s Milk Allergy: Immunomodulation by Dietary Intervention

Department of Pediatrics, Vittore Buzzi Children’s Hospital-University of Milan, 20154 Milan, Italy
Department of Pediatrics, Ospedale “F. Del Ponte”, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Pediatric Unit, University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, “Aldo Moro” University of Bari, P.zza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
KidZ Health Castle, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1090 Brussels, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1399;
Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cow's Milk and Allergy)
Cow’s milk proteins cause allergic symptoms in 2% to 3% of all infants. In these individuals, the physiological mechanism of tolerance is broken with subsequent possible sensitization to antigens, which can lead eventually to allergic responses. The present review aims to provide an overview of different aspects of immune modulation by dietary intervention in cow’s milk allergy (CMA). It focuses on pathogenetic mechanisms of different CMA related disorders, e.g., gastroesophageal reflux and eosinophilic esophagitis, highlighting the role of dietary management on innate and adaptive immune systems. The traditional dietary management of CMA has greatly changed in the last years, moving from a passive approach, consisting of an elimination diet to relieve symptoms, to a “proactive” one, meaning the possibility to actively modulate the immune system. Thus, new insights into the role of hydrolysates and baked milk in immunomodulation are addressed here. Additionally, nutritional components, such as pre- and probiotics, may target the immune system via microbiota, offering a possible road map for new CMA prevention and treatment strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: cow’s milk allergy; immune system; dietary intervention; bioactive peptides; gut microbiota; prebiotics; probiotics cow’s milk allergy; immune system; dietary intervention; bioactive peptides; gut microbiota; prebiotics; probiotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

D’Auria, E.; Salvatore, S.; Pozzi, E.; Mantegazza, C.; Sartorio, M.U.A.; Pensabene, L.; Baldassarre, M.E.; Agosti, M.; Vandenplas, Y.; Zuccotti, G. Cow’s Milk Allergy: Immunomodulation by Dietary Intervention. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1399.

AMA Style

D’Auria E, Salvatore S, Pozzi E, Mantegazza C, Sartorio MUA, Pensabene L, Baldassarre ME, Agosti M, Vandenplas Y, Zuccotti G. Cow’s Milk Allergy: Immunomodulation by Dietary Intervention. Nutrients. 2019; 11(6):1399.

Chicago/Turabian Style

D’Auria, Enza, Silvia Salvatore, Elena Pozzi, Cecilia Mantegazza, Marco Ugo Andrea Sartorio, Licia Pensabene, Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, Massimo Agosti, Yvan Vandenplas, and GianVincenzo Zuccotti. 2019. "Cow’s Milk Allergy: Immunomodulation by Dietary Intervention" Nutrients 11, no. 6: 1399.

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