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Modulation of Bone and Marrow Niche by Cholesterol

1, 2,* and 1,3,*
1
Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
2
Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
3
Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2800, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061394
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Nutrition)
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PDF [587 KB, uploaded 21 June 2019]
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Abstract

Bone is a complex tissue composing of mineralized bone, bone cells, hematopoietic cells, marrow adipocytes, and supportive stromal cells. The homeostasis of bone and marrow niche is dynamically regulated by nutrients. The positive correlation between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis risk suggests a close relationship between hyperlipidemia and/or hypercholesterolemia and the bone metabolism. Cholesterol and its metabolites influence the bone homeostasis through modulating the differentiation and activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The effects of cholesterol on hematopoietic stem cells, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation, are also well-documented and further relate to atherosclerotic lesions. Correlation between circulating cholesterol and bone marrow adipocytes remains elusive, which seems opposite to its effects on osteoblasts. Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that cholesterol deteriorates or benefits bone metabolism depending on the types, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress of how cholesterol regulates bone metabolism and bone marrow microenvironment, including the hematopoiesis and marrow adiposity. Elucidation of these association and factors is of great importance in developing therapeutic options for bone related diseases under hypercholesterolemic conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholesterol; bone metabolism; hematopoiesis; bone marrow adipocytes cholesterol; bone metabolism; hematopoiesis; bone marrow adipocytes
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Yin, W.; Li, Z.; Zhang, W. Modulation of Bone and Marrow Niche by Cholesterol. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1394.

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