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Habitual Breakfast Patterns Do Not Influence Appetite and Satiety Responses in Normal vs. High-Protein Breakfasts in Overweight Adolescent Girls

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 700 W State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1223;
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
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Differences in postprandial insulin, glucose, and/or free fatty acid concentrations, following the consumption of breakfast, have been demonstrated to be dependent on habitual breakfast patterns. This study examined the effects of habitual breakfast patterns on postprandial appetite, satiety, and hormonal responses along with daily food intake following the consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs. higher-protein (HP) breakfasts in overweight adolescents. Thirty-seven girls (age: 19 ± 1 year; BMI: 29.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2) participated in the semi-randomized crossover design study. Participants were grouped according to whether they habitually skipped (SKIP, n = 18) or consumed breakfast (CONSUME, n = 19), and consumed a NP (350 kcal; 13 g protein) or HP (350 kcal; 35 g protein) breakfast for 3 days/pattern. On day 4, breakfast was provided, and appetite questionnaires and blood samples were collected throughout an 8 h testing day. Daily food intake was also assessed. Regardless of habitual breakfast patterns, the consumption of HP breakfast led to greater daily fullness (29,030 ± 6,010 min × mm) vs. NP breakfast (26,910 ± 5580 min × mm; p = 0.03). Daily protein consumption was greater (98 ± 15 g vs. 78 ± 15 g), and carbohydrate consumption was lower (331 ± 98 g vs. 367 ± 94 g) with HP vs. NP (both, p < 0.001). No other differences were observed. These data suggest that the recommendation to consume a HP breakfast for improved satiety and ingestive behavior is appropriate for overweight adolescent girls, regardless of habitual breakfast patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: breakfast; protein; habitual breakfast patterns; fullness; intake breakfast; protein; habitual breakfast patterns; fullness; intake

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Douglas, S.M.; Byers, A.W.; Leidy, H.J. Habitual Breakfast Patterns Do Not Influence Appetite and Satiety Responses in Normal vs. High-Protein Breakfasts in Overweight Adolescent Girls. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1223.

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