Next Article in Journal
Effect of Weight Loss after Bariatric Surgery on Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels in Euthyroid Patients with Morbid Obesity
Next Article in Special Issue
Associations of AD Biomarkers and Cognitive Performance with Nutritional Status: The NUDAD Project
Previous Article in Journal
Are Older Adults without a Healthy Diet Less Physically Active and More Sedentary?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dietary Patterns Are Related to Clinical Characteristics in Memory Clinic Patients with Subjective Cognitive Decline: The SCIENCe Project
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Ginsenosides Rg5 and Rk1 Enriched Cultured Wild Ginseng Root Extract Bioconversion of Pediococcus pentosaceus HLJG0702: Effect on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Dysfunction in Mice

1
Korea Conformity Laboratories, 8, Gaetbeol-ro 145 beon-gil, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21999, Korea
2
Bio Research Institute of Biotechnology, 504 Ilho Golden Tower, 11, Jeongbalsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 10402, Korea
3
JI Bio pharm Inc., 805 Business Building, Dong Guk University, 32, Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 10326, Korea
4
Hwajin BioCosmetics CO., LTD., 303 1 Building, Chuncheon Bioindustry Foundation, 32, Soyanggang-ro, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do 24232, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051120
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
  |  
PDF [2559 KB, uploaded 20 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Wild ginseng is known to contain additional physiologically and pharmacologically active substances than common ginseng. The utilization of this herb can be maximized by altering its composition via tissue culture generating adventitious roots. We enriched the content of specific ginsenosides and investigated their role in ameliorating memory impairment. Cultured wild ginseng root was subjected to extraction, steaming, and fermentation using Pediococcus pentosaceus HLJG0702 to enhance the levels of ginsenosides Rg5 /Rk1. The analysis of product, HLJG0701, confirmed target ginsenosides. We analyzed the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg5/Rk1, HLJG0701 and the raw material on acetylcholinesterase. Further, we performed Morris water maze, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks with mice exhibiting memory deficit induced by scopolamine, and we analyzed the concentrations of acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine in their brains. Studies showed that the levels of ginsenosides Rg5 /Rk1, not found in the raw material, were enhanced in HLJG0701. Ginsenosides and HLJG0701 significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase unlike the raw material. In all behavioral tasks, HLJG0701 showed memory improvement. It reduced acetylcholinesterase, whereas, it preserved acetylcholine in brain. In conclusion, cultured wild ginseng root extract fermented by P. pentosaceus HLJG0702 contains the distinctive ginsenosides Rg5/Rk1, which may ameliorate memory impairment via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase resulting in increased acetylcholine levels in the brain. View Full-Text
Keywords: cultured wild ginseng root; Pediococcus pentosaceus; ginsenoside Rg5/Rk1; acetylcholinesterase; memory deficit cultured wild ginseng root; Pediococcus pentosaceus; ginsenoside Rg5/Rk1; acetylcholinesterase; memory deficit
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

An, K.S.; Choi, Y.O.; Lee, S.M.; Ryu, H.Y.; Kang, S.J.; Yeon, Y.; Kim, Y.R.; Lee, J.G.; Kim, C.J.; Lee, Y.; Kang, B.J.; Choi, J.E.; Song, K.S. Ginsenosides Rg5 and Rk1 Enriched Cultured Wild Ginseng Root Extract Bioconversion of Pediococcus pentosaceus HLJG0702: Effect on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Dysfunction in Mice. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1120.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top