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Dietary Factors in Sulfur Metabolism and Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis

1
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
BioTechnology Insititute, Department of Soil, Water & Climate, and Department of Plant & Microbial Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040931
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD))
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Abstract

The biogeography of inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) suggests a proximal to distal concentration gradient of a toxin. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been considered one such toxin candidate, and dietary sulfur along with the abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were considered the primary determinants of H2S production and clinical course of UC. The metabolic milieu in the lumen of the colon, however, is the result of a multitude of factors beyond dietary sulfur intake and SRB abundance. Here we present an updated formulation of the H2S toxin hypothesis for UC pathogenesis, which strives to incorporate the interdependency of diet composition and the metabolic activity of the entire colon microbial community. Specifically, we suggest that the increasing severity of inflammation along the proximal-to-distal axis in UC is due to the dilution of beneficial factors, concentration of toxic factors, and changing detoxification capacity of the host, all of which are intimately linked to the nutrient flow from the diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: colon; high-sulfur foods; inflammation; metagenomics; microbiota; sulfur reducing colon; high-sulfur foods; inflammation; metagenomics; microbiota; sulfur reducing
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Teigen, L.M.; Geng, Z.; Sadowsky, M.J.; Vaughn, B.P.; Hamilton, M.J.; Khoruts, A. Dietary Factors in Sulfur Metabolism and Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 931.

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