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Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040846

Association between Dietary Cholesterol and Their Food Sources and Risk for Hypercholesterolemia: The 2012–2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Department of Food and Nutrition, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Management of Dyslipidemia)
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Abstract

It remains unclear whether cholesterol intake can increase serum cholesterol. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that the risk for hypercholesterolemia was not associated with intake of dietary cholesterol after adjusting for saturated fatty acid (SFA). Based on the data from the 2012–2016 KNHANES, dietary cholesterol was positively associated with the risk for abnormalities in total cholesterol (TC) (odds ratio (OR): 1.153, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.995–1.337; p = 0.028) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR: 1.186, 95% CI: 1.019–1.382; p = 0.018) levels before adjusting for SFA; after adjusting for SFA, no significant associations were found between these variables. The mediation analysis showed that dietary cholesterol had no direct effects on the serum levels of TC and LDL-C; in contrast, SFA had significant indirect effects on the association between dietary cholesterol and serum levels of TC and LDL-C. Furthermore, processed meats, but not eggs and other meats, were positively associated with the risk for abnormalities in both TC (OR: 1.220, 95% CI: 1.083–1.374; p = 0.001) and LDL-C (OR: 1.193, 95% CI: 1.052–1.354; p = 0.004) levels. The present study suggested that higher intake of processed meats with high SFA, but not dietary cholesterol was associated with higher risk for abnormalities in TC and LDL-C levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary cholesterol; egg; hypercholesterolemia; processed meat; saturated fatty acid dietary cholesterol; egg; hypercholesterolemia; processed meat; saturated fatty acid
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Cha, D.; Park, Y. Association between Dietary Cholesterol and Their Food Sources and Risk for Hypercholesterolemia: The 2012–2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutrients 2019, 11, 846.

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