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Open AccessArticle

Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Bone Mineral Density in Spanish Premenopausal Women

Metabolic Bone Disease Research Group, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
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These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030555
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with an improvement in health and an increase in longevity. Certain components of a MD can play a role in the prevention of osteoporosis and/or hip fracture. We investigated the association between the degree of adherence to a MD and bone mineral density (BMD) measured in several bone areas in a population of Spanish premenopausal women. We analyzed 442 premenopausal women aged 42.73 ± 6.67 years. Bone measurements were obtained using quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) for the phalanx, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the lumbar spine, Ward’s triangle, trochanter, and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for the non-dominant distal forearm. MD adherence was evaluated with MedDietScore. Amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SOS), BMD, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) (total, trabecular, and cortical bone density) were positively associated with higher adherence to the MD (p < 0.05). Adherence to the MD was significantly associated with QUS, BMD, and vBMD in multiple regression analysis; QUS: Ad-SOS (m/s) β = 0.099 (p = 0.030); BMD (g/cm2): femur neck β = 0.114 (p = 0.010) and Ward’s triangle β = 0.125 (p = 0.006); vBMD (mg/cm3): total density β = 0.119 (p = 0.036), trabecular density β = 0.120 (p = 0.035), and cortical density β = 0.122 (p = 0.032). We conclude that the adherence to the MD was positively associated with better bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; adherence; bone mineral density; premenopausal women; quantitative bone ultrasound; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan; peripheral quantitative computed tomography Mediterranean diet; adherence; bone mineral density; premenopausal women; quantitative bone ultrasound; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan; peripheral quantitative computed tomography
MDPI and ACS Style

Pérez-Rey, J.; Roncero-Martín, R.; Rico-Martín, S.; Rey-Sánchez, P.; Pedrera-Zamorano, J.D.; Pedrera-Canal, M.; López-Espuela, F.; Lavado-García, J.M. Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Bone Mineral Density in Spanish Premenopausal Women. Nutrients 2019, 11, 555.

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