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Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030555

Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Bone Mineral Density in Spanish Premenopausal Women

Metabolic Bone Disease Research Group, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract

The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been associated with an improvement in health and an increase in longevity. Certain components of a MD can play a role in the prevention of osteoporosis and/or hip fracture. We investigated the association between the degree of adherence to a MD and bone mineral density (BMD) measured in several bone areas in a population of Spanish premenopausal women. We analyzed 442 premenopausal women aged 42.73 ± 6.67 years. Bone measurements were obtained using quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) for the phalanx, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the lumbar spine, Ward’s triangle, trochanter, and hip, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for the non-dominant distal forearm. MD adherence was evaluated with MedDietScore. Amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SOS), BMD, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) (total, trabecular, and cortical bone density) were positively associated with higher adherence to the MD (p < 0.05). Adherence to the MD was significantly associated with QUS, BMD, and vBMD in multiple regression analysis; QUS: Ad-SOS (m/s) β = 0.099 (p = 0.030); BMD (g/cm2): femur neck β = 0.114 (p = 0.010) and Ward’s triangle β = 0.125 (p = 0.006); vBMD (mg/cm3): total density β = 0.119 (p = 0.036), trabecular density β = 0.120 (p = 0.035), and cortical density β = 0.122 (p = 0.032). We conclude that the adherence to the MD was positively associated with better bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; adherence; bone mineral density; premenopausal women; quantitative bone ultrasound; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan; peripheral quantitative computed tomography Mediterranean diet; adherence; bone mineral density; premenopausal women; quantitative bone ultrasound; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan; peripheral quantitative computed tomography
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pérez-Rey, J.; Roncero-Martín, R.; Rico-Martín, S.; Rey-Sánchez, P.; Pedrera-Zamorano, J.D.; Pedrera-Canal, M.; López-Espuela, F.; Lavado-García, J.M. Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Bone Mineral Density in Spanish Premenopausal Women. Nutrients 2019, 11, 555.

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