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Article

Variability of Serum Proteins in Chinese and Dutch Human Milk during Lactation

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Food Quality and Design Group, Wageningen University & Research, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Wageningen University & Research, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Laboratory of Biochemistry, Wageningen University & Research, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Biometris-Applied Statistics, Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group Co., Ltd., Jinshan Road 8, Hohhot 010110, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030499
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 24 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Milk and Lactation)
To better understand the variability of the type and level of serum proteins in human milk, the milk serum proteome of Chinese mothers during lactation was investigated using proteomic techniques and compared to the milk serum proteome of Dutch mothers. This showed that total milk serum protein concentrations in Chinese human milk decreased over a 20-week lactation period, although with variation between mothers in the rate of decrease. Variation was also found in the composition of serum proteins in both colostrum and mature milk, although immune-active proteins, enzymes, and transport proteins were the most abundant for all mothers. These three protein groups account for many of the 15 most abundant proteins, with these 15 proteins covering more than 95% of the total protein concentrations, in both the Chinese and Dutch milk serum proteome. The Dutch and Chinese milk serum proteome were also compared based on 166 common milk serum proteins, which showed that 22% of the 166 serum proteins differed in level. These differences were observed mainly in colostrum and concern several highly abundant proteins. This study also showed that protease inhibitors, which are highly correlated to immune-active proteins, are present in variable amounts in human milk and could be relevant during digestion. View Full-Text
Keywords: mammary gland; immune-active proteins; proteases; protease inhibitors; digestive tract mammary gland; immune-active proteins; proteases; protease inhibitors; digestive tract
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elwakiel, M.; Boeren, S.; Hageman, J.A.; Szeto, I.M.; Schols, H.A.; Hettinga, K.A. Variability of Serum Proteins in Chinese and Dutch Human Milk during Lactation. Nutrients 2019, 11, 499. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030499

AMA Style

Elwakiel M, Boeren S, Hageman JA, Szeto IM, Schols HA, Hettinga KA. Variability of Serum Proteins in Chinese and Dutch Human Milk during Lactation. Nutrients. 2019; 11(3):499. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030499

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elwakiel, Mohèb, Sjef Boeren, Jos A. Hageman, Ignatius M. Szeto, Henk A. Schols, and Kasper A. Hettinga 2019. "Variability of Serum Proteins in Chinese and Dutch Human Milk during Lactation" Nutrients 11, no. 3: 499. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030499

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