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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Pulmonary Function: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the ILERVAS Project

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Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolism (ODIM) research group, IRBLleida, University of Lleida, 25195 Lleida, Spain
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Respiratory Department, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova-Santa María, Translational Research in Respiratory Medicine, IRBLleida, University of Lleida, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Human Nutrition Unit, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Rovira i Virgili University, 43201 Reus, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Unit for the Detection and Treatment of Atherothrombotic Diseases (UDETMA V&R), University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Vascular and Renal Translational Research Group, IRBLleida. University of Lleida, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Stroke Unit. University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Clinical Neurosciences Group, IRBLleida. University of Lleida, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Experimental Medicine Department. IRBLleida, University of Lleida, 25198 Lleida, Spain
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Primary Health Care Unit, 25007 Lleida, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Liliana Gutiérrez-Carrasquilla and Enric Sánchez contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020329
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 3 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality and Health Outcomes)
A few studies showed that both adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and physical activity practice have a positive impact on pulmonary function in subjects with lung disease. These associations are not well studied in subjects free from lung disease. In a cross-sectional study conducted in 3020 middle-aged subjects free of lung disease, adherence to the MedDiet using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, and physical activity practice using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form were recorded. Respiratory function was assessed using forced spirometry and the results were evaluated according to the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations between adherence to the MedDiet and physical activity practice with the presence of ventilatory defects. Participants with a high adherence to MedDiet, in comparison to those with low adherence, had both higher forced vital capacity (FVC; 100 (87–109) vs. 94 (82–105) % of predicted, p = 0.003) and forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1; 100 (89–112) vs. 93 (80–107) % of predicted, p < 0.001). According to their degree of physical activity, those subjects with a high adherence also had both higher FVC (100 (88–107) vs. 94 (83–105) % of predicted, p = 0.027) and FEV1 (100 (89–110) vs. 95 (84–108) % of predicted, p = 0.047) in comparison with those with low adherence. The multivariable logistic regression models showed a significant and independent association between both low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice, and the presence of altered pulmonary patterns, with differences between men and women. However, no joint effect between adherence to MedDiet and physical activity practice on respiratory function values was observed. Low adherence to MedDiet and low physical activity practice were independently associated with pulmonary impairment. Therefore, the lung mechanics seem to benefit from heart-healthy lifestyle behaviors. View Full-Text
Keywords: forced vital capacity; forced expiratory volume in the first second; lung function; Mediterranean diet; physical activity; questionnaire forced vital capacity; forced expiratory volume in the first second; lung function; Mediterranean diet; physical activity; questionnaire
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Gutiérrez-Carrasquilla, L.; Sánchez, E.; Hernández, M.; Polanco, D.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Betriu, À.; Gaeta, A.M.; Carmona, P.; Purroy, F.; Pamplona, R.; Farràs, C.; López-Cano, C.; Fernández, E.; Lecube, A. Effects of Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity on Pulmonary Function: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the ILERVAS Project. Nutrients 2019, 11, 329.

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