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Effect of Sucrose Ingestion at the End of a Critical Window that Increases Hypertension Susceptibility on Peripheral Mechanisms Regulating Blood Pressure in Rats. Role of Sirtuins 1 and 3

1
Department of Physiology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
2
Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
3
Department of Pharmacology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
4
Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
5
Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán”, Vasco de Quiroga 15, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14000, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020309
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract

Susceptibility to develop hypertension may be established during early stages of life that include the intrauterine period, infancy and childhood. We recently showed that blood pressure increased when rats reached adulthood when sucrose was ingested for a short-term critical window from postnatal day 12 to 28 in the rat, which corresponds to days around weaning. Here, we studied several factors that might participate in the increased susceptibility to hypertension when adulthood is reached by analyzing the changes produced at the end of the sucrose ingestion during this critical period. Body weight of the rats at the end of the sucrose period was decreased even if there was an increased ingestion in Kcal. We found an increase in blood pressure accompanied by a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in the aorta. When insulin was administered to rats receiving sucrose, glucose in plasma diminished later than in controls and this slight insulin resistance may reduce nitric oxide synthase action. Oleic acid that modulates eNOS expression was increased, lipoperoxidation was elevated and total non-enzymatic anti-oxidant capacity was decreased. There was also a decrease in SOD2 expression. We also studied the expression of Sirt1, which regulates eNOS expression and Sirt3, which regulates SOD2 expression as possible epigenetic targets of enzyme expression involved in the long- term programming of hypertension. Sirt3 was decreased but we did not find an alteration in Sirt1 expression. We conclude that these changes may underpin the epigenetic programming of increased susceptibility to develop hypertension in the adults when there was exposure to high sucrose levels near weaning in rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; sucrose ingestion; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; oxidative stress; fatty acids; critical window hypertension; sucrose ingestion; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; oxidative stress; fatty acids; critical window
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Castrejón-Téllez, V.; Villegas-Romero, M.; Pérez-Torres, I.; Zarco, G.; Rubio-Ruiz, M.E.; Carreón-Torres, E.; Díaz-Díaz, E.; Grimaldo, O.E.; Guarner-Lans, V. Effect of Sucrose Ingestion at the End of a Critical Window that Increases Hypertension Susceptibility on Peripheral Mechanisms Regulating Blood Pressure in Rats. Role of Sirtuins 1 and 3. Nutrients 2019, 11, 309.

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