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Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020298

A Genetic Score of Predisposition to Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Obesity May Contribute to Discern Population at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome

1
NUO Group, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Nutrition and Biotechnology, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma, Spain
2
CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Illes Balears (IdISBa), 07120 Palma, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Diet Interactions)
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Abstract

Omega-3 rich diets have been shown to improve inflammatory status. However, in an ex vivo system of human blood cells, the efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) modulating lipid metabolism and cytokine response is attenuated in overweight subjects and shows high inter-individual variability. This suggests that obesity may be exerting a synergistic effect with genetic background disturbing the anti-inflammatory potential of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In the present work, a genetic score aiming to explore the risk associated to low grade inflammation and obesity (LGI-Ob) has been elaborated and assessed as a tool to contribute to discern population at risk for metabolic syndrome. Pro-inflammatory gene expression and cytokine production as a response to omega-3 were associated with LGI-Ob score; and lower anti-inflammatory effect of PUFA was observed in subjects with a high genetic score. Furthermore, overweight/obese individuals showed positive correlation of both plasma C-Reactive Protein and triglyceride/HDLc-index with LGI-Ob; and high LGI-Ob score was associated with greater hypertension (p = 0.047), Type 2 diabetes (p = 0.026), and metabolic risk (p = 0.021). The study shows that genetic variation can influence inflammation and omega-3 response, and that the LGI-Ob score could be a useful tool to classify subjects at inflammatory risk and more prone to suffer metabolic syndrome and associated metabolic disturbances. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic score; obesity; metabolic syndrome; low-grade inflammation; type 2 diabetes genetic score; obesity; metabolic syndrome; low-grade inflammation; type 2 diabetes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Galmés, S.; Cifre, M.; Palou, A.; Oliver, P.; Serra, F. A Genetic Score of Predisposition to Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Obesity May Contribute to Discern Population at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2019, 11, 298.

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