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Open AccessArticle

Metabolomic Salivary Signature of Pediatric Obesity Related Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome

1
Department of Medicine and Surgery and Dentistry, “Scuola Medica Salernitana”, Pediatrics Section University of Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (Salerno), Italy
2
Theoreo srl, Via degli Ulivi 3, 84090 Montecorvino Pugliano (SA), Italy
3
European Biomedical Research Institute of Salerno (EBRIS), Via S. de Renzi, 3, 84125 Salerno, Italy
4
Hosmotic srl, Via R. Bosco 178, 80069 Vico Equense (NA), Italy
5
Department of Physics, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Salerno), Italy
6
Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital Santobono-Pausilipon, 80129 Naples, Italy
7
European Laboratory of Food Induced Intestinal Disease (ELFID), University of Naples Federico II, 80100 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020274
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
Pediatric obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increasingly frequent conditions with a still-elusive diagnosis and low-efficacy treatment and monitoring options. In this study, we investigated the salivary metabolomic signature, which has been uncharacterized to date. In this pilot-nested case-control study over a transversal design, 41 subjects (23 obese patients and 18 normal weight (NW) healthy controls), characterized based on medical history, clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory data, were recruited. Liver involvement, defined according to ultrasonographic liver brightness, allowed for the allocation of the patients into four groups: obese with hepatic steatosis ([St+], n = 15) and without hepatic steatosis ([St–], n = 8), and with (n = 10) and without (n = 13) MetS. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was devised to classify the patients’ classes based on their salivary metabolomic signature. Pediatric obesity and its related liver disease and metabolic syndrome appear to have distinct salivary metabolomic signatures. The difference is notable in metabolites involved in energy, amino and organic acid metabolism, as well as in intestinal bacteria metabolism, possibly reflecting diet, fatty acid synthase pathways, and the strict interaction between microbiota and intestinal mucins. This information expands the current understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis, potentially translating into better targeted monitoring and/or treatment strategies in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatric obesity; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; metabolic syndrome; saliva; metabolomics; gas-chromatography mass spectrometry pediatric obesity; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; metabolic syndrome; saliva; metabolomics; gas-chromatography mass spectrometry
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Troisi, J.; Belmonte, F.; Bisogno, A.; Pierri, L.; Colucci, A.; Scala, G.; Cavallo, P.; Mandato, C.; Di Nuzzi, A.; Di Michele, L.; Delli Bovi, A.P.; Guercio Nuzio, S.; Vajro, P. Metabolomic Salivary Signature of Pediatric Obesity Related Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2019, 11, 274.

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