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Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 275;

Lower Depression Scores among Walnut Consumers in NHANES

Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research and Department of Biological Chemistry, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Department of Medicine Statistics Core, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
PDF [262 KB, uploaded 11 February 2019]


Background: Multiple studies have shown a Mediterranean diet, characterized by their olive oil and nut consumption, to be correlated with lower depression risk. Objective: To examine whether part of this reduced risk in the United States is attributable to walnut consumption, we analyzed data on walnut consumption and depression scores from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods: NHANES survey data for 2005 through 2014 was pooled for adults with 24 h recall dietary data. Depression scores were based on PHQ-9 self-report responses. A total of 26,656 participants were characterized as reporting the consumption of walnuts with high certainty, walnuts with other nuts, other nuts, or no nuts. Results: After an adjustment for covariates, walnut consumers showed lower depression scores compared to non-nut consumers. The least square mean for total depression score was 26% lower for walnut with high certainty consumers than for non-nut consumers (p < 0.0001), and the association was stronger among women (32%, p < 0.0001) than men (21%, p = 0.05). The significant contributors to this difference were due to walnut consumers reporting greater interest in doing things (p = 0.003), less hopelessness (p = 0.02), and feeling more energetic (p = 0.05) than non-nut consumers. Non-nut consumers were more likely to have trouble concentrating (p = 0.02), to feel they were moving or speaking abnormally (p = 0.03), and to have thought they were better off dead (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Depression scores were significantly lower among nut consumers and particularly walnut consumers as compared to non-nut consumers. After controlling for potential covariates, walnut users had scores significantly lower than other nut consumers. The difference was strongest among women, who are more likely than men to report higher depression scores. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; nut consumption; NHANES; epidemiology; walnut depression; nut consumption; NHANES; epidemiology; walnut
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Arab, L.; Guo, R.; Elashoff, D. Lower Depression Scores among Walnut Consumers in NHANES. Nutrients 2019, 11, 275.

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