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Review

Hop Compounds: Extraction Techniques, Chemical Analyses, Antioxidative, Antimicrobial, and Anticarcinogenic Effects

1
Laboratory of Separation Processes and Product Design, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova ulica 17, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia
2
Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Thermodynamics, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova ulica 17, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia
3
Slovenian Institute of Hop Research and Brewing, Cesta Žalskega Tabora 2, SI-3310 Žalec, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020257
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Health and Disease)
Hop plants comprise a variety of natural compounds greatly differing in their structure and properties. A wide range of methods have been developed for their isolation and chemical analysis, as well as for determining their antioxidative, antimicrobial, and antigenotoxic potentials. This contribution provides an overview of extraction and fractionation techniques of the most important hop compounds known for their health-promoting features. Although hops remain the principal ingredient for providing the taste, stability, and antimicrobial protection of beer, they have found applications in the pharmaceutical and other food industries as well. This review focuses on numerous health-promoting effects of hops raging from antioxidative, sedative, and anti-inflammatory potentials, over anticarcinogenic features to estrogenic activity. Therefore, hops should be exploited for the prevention and even healing of several prevalent diseases like cardiovascular disorders and various cancer types. New ideas for future studies on hops are finally presented: computational investigations of chemical reactivities of hop compounds, nanoencapsulation, and synergistic effects leading to a higher bioavailability of biologically active substances as well as the application of waste hop biomass from breweries for the production of high-added-value products in accordance with the biorefinery concept. View Full-Text
Keywords: hops; extraction; antioxidative effects; antimicrobial effects; anticarcinogenic effects hops; extraction; antioxidative effects; antimicrobial effects; anticarcinogenic effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Knez Hrnčič, M.; Španinger, E.; Košir, I.J.; Knez, Ž.; Bren, U. Hop Compounds: Extraction Techniques, Chemical Analyses, Antioxidative, Antimicrobial, and Anticarcinogenic Effects. Nutrients 2019, 11, 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020257

AMA Style

Knez Hrnčič M, Španinger E, Košir IJ, Knez Ž, Bren U. Hop Compounds: Extraction Techniques, Chemical Analyses, Antioxidative, Antimicrobial, and Anticarcinogenic Effects. Nutrients. 2019; 11(2):257. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020257

Chicago/Turabian Style

Knez Hrnčič, Maša, Eva Španinger, Iztok J. Košir, Željko Knez, and Urban Bren. 2019. "Hop Compounds: Extraction Techniques, Chemical Analyses, Antioxidative, Antimicrobial, and Anticarcinogenic Effects" Nutrients 11, no. 2: 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020257

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