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Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020258

Probiotics: How Effective Are They in the Fight against Obesity?

1,†
,
1,†
and
1,2,*
1
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766, USA
2
Department of Health and Human Development, University of Suceava, Suceava 720229, Romania
Contributed equally to the work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [323 KB, uploaded 24 January 2019]

Abstract

Obesity has been associated with structural and functional changes in the gut microbiota. The abundance in, and diversity of, certain bacteria may favor energy harvest and metabolic pathways leading to obesity. Therefore, gut microbiota has become a potential target that can be manipulated to obtain optimal health. Probiotics have been shown to influence the composition of the gut microbiota, improve gut integrity, and restore the microbial shifts characteristic of obesity. Based on physical and biochemical parameters, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and alterations in gut microbe diversity, animal studies revealed beneficial results in obese models whereas the results in humans are sparse and inconsistent. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present evidence from animal studies and human clinical trials demonstrating the effects of various probiotic strains and their potential efficacy in improving obesity and associated metabolic dysfunctions. Furthermore, the review discusses current gaps in our understanding of how probiotics modulate gut microflora to protect against obesity. Finally, we propose future studies and methodological approaches that may shed light on the challenges facing the scientific community in deciphering the host–bacteria interaction in obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; inflammation; adiposity; lactobacillus; bifidobacterium microbiota; inflammation; adiposity; lactobacillus; bifidobacterium
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mazloom, K.; Siddiqi, I.; Covasa, M. Probiotics: How Effective Are They in the Fight against Obesity? Nutrients 2019, 11, 258.

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