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Mother or Father: Who Is in the Front Line? Mechanisms Underlying the Non-Genomic Transmission of Obesity/Diabetes via the Maternal or the Paternal Line

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Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, Laboratoire B2PE (Biologie et Pathologie du Pancréas Endocrine), Unité BFA (Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative), Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS UMR 8251, F-75205 Paris CEDEX 13, France
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Inserm U1065 C3M, Team Control of Gene Expression (10), Université Côte d’Azur, 151 Route de Ginestière, 06204 Nice CEDEX 3, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020233
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
Extensive epidemiological and experimental evidence have shown that exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment as observed in offspring of pregnancies complicated by obesity or diabetes, can program susceptibility to metabolic, endocrine and cardiovascular disorders later in life. Although most studies have concentrated on the maternal environment, it is also becoming evident that paternal exposure to obesity or diabetes can result in the later development of metabolic disorders in the offspring. Such programmed effects might not be limited to the first directly exposed generation, but could be transmitted to subsequent generations. This suggests the existence of mechanisms by which metabolic changes in parental phenotype are transmissible to offspring. The mechanisms which underpin the transmission of the programmed effects across generations are still unclear. However, epigenetic regulation of transcription has emerged as a strong candidate for mediating the heritability of metabolic diseases. Here, we review the most relevant evidence from human and animal studies showing transmission of programming effects of obesity or diabetes across generations, and the current mechanisms underlying either maternal or paternal influences on the metabolic status of offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal and paternal metabolic imprinting; germ cell epigenome; sncRNAs; DOHaD; obesity; diabetes maternal and paternal metabolic imprinting; germ cell epigenome; sncRNAs; DOHaD; obesity; diabetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Portha, B.; Grandjean, V.; Movassat, J. Mother or Father: Who Is in the Front Line? Mechanisms Underlying the Non-Genomic Transmission of Obesity/Diabetes via the Maternal or the Paternal Line. Nutrients 2019, 11, 233.

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