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Effect of Diet on the Gut Microbiota: Rethinking Intervention Duration
Open AccessArticle

Enteral Nutrition in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic SCT Promotes the Recovery of Gut Microbiome Homeostasis

1
Microbial Ecology of Health Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy
3
Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Unit “Lalla Seràgnoli”, Department of Pediatrics, University of Bologna, Sant’Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
4
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2958; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122958
Received: 14 October 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Compounds Impact on Human Gut Microbiome and Gut Health)
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the first-line immunotherapy to treat several hematologic disorders, although it can be associated with many complications reducing the survival rate, such as acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) and infections. Given the fundamental role of the gut microbiome (GM) for host health, it is not surprising that a suboptimal path of GM recovery following HSCT may compromise immune homeostasis and/or increase the risk of opportunistic infections, with an ultimate impact in terms of aGvHD onset. Traditionally, the first nutritional approach in post-HSCT patients is parenteral nutrition (PN), which is associated with several clinical adverse effects, supporting enteral nutrition (EN) as a preferential alternative. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of EN vs. PN on the trajectory of compositional and functional GM recovery in pediatric patients undergoing HSCT. The GM structure and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production profiles were analyzed longitudinally in twenty pediatric patients receiving HSCT—of which, ten were fed post-transplant with EN and ten with total PN. According to our findings, we observed the prompt recovery of a structural and functional eubiotic GM layout post-HSCT only in EN subjects, thus possibly reducing the risk of systemic infections and GvHD onset.
Keywords: enteral nutrition; parenteral nutrition; gut microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Graft-versus-host disease enteral nutrition; parenteral nutrition; gut microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Graft-versus-host disease
MDPI and ACS Style

D’Amico, F.; Biagi, E.; Rampelli, S.; Fiori, J.; Zama, D.; Soverini, M.; Barone, M.; Leardini, D.; Muratore, E.; Prete, A.; Gotti, R.; Pession, A.; Masetti, R.; Brigidi, P.; Turroni, S.; Candela, M. Enteral Nutrition in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic SCT Promotes the Recovery of Gut Microbiome Homeostasis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2958.

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