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Open AccessArticle

Combined Treatment with Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Cholecalciferol Increases 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels by Modulating Dysregulation of Vitamin D Metabolism in 5/6 Nephrectomy Rats

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 49201, Korea
2
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 49201, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2903; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122903
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 1 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Health and the Prevention and Treatment of Disease)
The protein 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) was expressed in liver and omega-3 fatty acid (FA) elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels in dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether omega-3 FA and cholecalciferol have effects on vitamin D metabolism related to CYP27B1 and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24) activities in the kidney and liver of 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) rats. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: sham control, 5/6 Nx, 5/6 Nx treated with cholecalciferol, 5/6 Nx treated with omega-3 FA, and 5/6 Nx treated with cholecalciferol/omega-3 FA. CYP27B1 and CYP24 expression were measured in the liver and kidney. Further, 1,25(OH)2D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were measured in serum. Among Nx groups, 1,25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D levels were lowest in the 5/6 Nx group. CYP24 expression was increased in the kidney of the 5/6 Nx rat model, which was found to be reversed by omega-3 FA or cholecalciferol/omega-3 FA supplementation. Decreased CYP27B1 expression was observed in the liver of the 5/6 Nx rats and its expression was recovered by supplementation with cholecalciferol/omega-3 FA. In conclusion, omega-3 FA and cholecalciferol may synergistically increase 1,25(OH)2D levels by inhibiting CYP24 expression in the kidney and liver and activating CYP27B1 expression in the liver of 5/6 Nx rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1); 24-hydroxylase (CYP24); 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; cholecalciferol; omega-3 fatty acid 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1); 24-hydroxylase (CYP24); 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; cholecalciferol; omega-3 fatty acid
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Lee, S.M.; Lee, M.H.; Son, Y.K.; Kim, S.E.; An, W.S. Combined Treatment with Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Cholecalciferol Increases 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Levels by Modulating Dysregulation of Vitamin D Metabolism in 5/6 Nephrectomy Rats. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2903.

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