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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome Parameters Differ by Gender in College Students

Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Weber State University, Ogden, UT 84408-2801, USA
Department of Mathematics, Weber State University, Ogden, UT 84408-2801, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2892;
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 24 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 27 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Syndromes)
MyPlate is a guidance system for healthier eating choices. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the influence of MyPlate food group consumption and exercise on metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters in college students. Participant (n = 462) blood was analyzed using Cholestech for triglycerides (TG), glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In addition, weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Diet and Wellness Plus was used to compute participant diet records. Regression analysis and a recursive decision tree were made to predict MetS using RStudio (V.1.1.463). BP decision tree predicted high risk of elevated blood pressure with a recall rate of 93.7%. For males; exercise, empty calories, dairy, and protein were main predictors. For females, vegetable and empty calorie consumption were primary determinants. HDL-C decision tree had a recall rate of 91.8% and showed that the main low HDL-C risk determinants for males were; exercise and grain consumption. Conversely, for females; empty calories, grain, and vegetable consumption were the key factors determining low HDL-C risk. This study shows that MyPlate recommendations are valuable to achieve adequate HDL-C and blood pressure and provides insight into the importance of tailoring food intake guidance based on gender.
Keywords: decision tree; HDL-C; blood pressure; MyPlate; food groups; MetS decision tree; HDL-C; blood pressure; MyPlate; food groups; MetS
MDPI and ACS Style

Saltzgiver, S.; Nielson, A.; Costello, H.; Baker, A.; Chan, J.; Aguilar, D. Dietary Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome Parameters Differ by Gender in College Students. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2892.

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  • Supplementary File 1:

    ZIP-Document (ZIP, 22 B)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3491166
    Description: The following are available online at Raw participant data: mets2.csv, HDL-C, and BP R-decision tree syntax: Trees.R, male WC, and BP MLR syntax: Regression.R.
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