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Autism, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Nutritional Interventions

1
Unit of Human Microbiome, Children’s Hospital and Research Institute “Bambino Gesù”, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Gastroenterologia, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
3
Neuropsichiatria dell’infanzia e dell’adolescenza, Children’s Hospital and Research Institute “Bambino Gesù”, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
4
Istituto di Patologia Speciale Medica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
5
UOC Medicina Interna e Gastroenterologia, Area Gastroenterologia ed Oncologia Medica, Dipartimento di Scienze Gastroenterologiche, Endocrino-Metaboliche e Nefro-Urologiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy
6
Units of Parasitology and Human Microbiome, Children’s Hospital and Research Institute “Bambino Gesù”, IRCCS, Piazza Sant’Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2812; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112812
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 7 November 2019 / Accepted: 13 November 2019 / Published: 18 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Digestive Diseases)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex behavioral syndrome that is characterized by speech and language disorders, intellectual impairment, learning and motor dysfunctions. Several genetic and environmental factors are suspected to affect the ASD phenotype including air pollution, exposure to pesticides, maternal infections, inflammatory conditions, dietary factors or consumption of antibiotics during pregnancy. Many children with ASD shows abnormalities in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, including increased intestinal permeability, overall microbiota alterations, and gut infection. Moreover, they are “picky eaters” and the existence of specific sensory patterns in ASD patients could represent one of the main aspects in hampering feeding. GI disorders are associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiota. Gut microbiome is able to communicate with brain activities through microbiota-derived signaling molecules, immune mediators, gut hormones as well as vagal and spinal afferent neurons. Since the diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiota and in the production of molecules, such as the SCFA, we wanted to investigate the role that nutritional intervention can have on GI microbiota composition and thus on its influence on behavior, GI symptoms and microbiota composition and report which are the beneficial effect on ASD conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorders (ASD); diet; nutritional status; anthropometry; metabolites; gastrointestinal symptoms; gut microbiome autism spectrum disorders (ASD); diet; nutritional status; anthropometry; metabolites; gastrointestinal symptoms; gut microbiome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ristori, M.V.; Quagliariello, A.; Reddel, S.; Ianiro, G.; Vicari, S.; Gasbarrini, A.; Putignani, L. Autism, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Nutritional Interventions. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2812. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112812

AMA Style

Ristori MV, Quagliariello A, Reddel S, Ianiro G, Vicari S, Gasbarrini A, Putignani L. Autism, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Nutritional Interventions. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11):2812. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112812

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ristori, Maria V.; Quagliariello, Andrea; Reddel, Sofia; Ianiro, Gianluca; Vicari, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Putignani, Lorenza. 2019. "Autism, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Modulation of Gut Microbiota by Nutritional Interventions" Nutrients 11, no. 11: 2812. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112812

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