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The Potential Influence of the Bacterial Microbiome on the Development and Progression of ADHD

Institute of Anatomy, Department of medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland
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Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2805; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112805
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 11 November 2019 / Accepted: 13 November 2019 / Published: 17 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Central Nervous System)
The latest research cumulates staggering information about the correlation between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review aims to shed light on the potential influence of the microbiome on the development of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disease, attention-deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD). As the etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD are still unclear, finding viable biomarkers and effective treatment still represent a challenge. Therefore, we focused on factors that have been associated with a higher risk of developing ADHD, while simultaneously influencing the microbial composition. We reviewed the effect of a differing microbial makeup on neurotransmitter concentrations important in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Additionally, we deduced factors that correlate with a high prevalence of ADHD, while simultaneously affecting the gut microbiome, such as emergency c-sections, and premature birth as the former leads to a decrease of the gut microbial diversity and the latter causes neuroprotective Lactobacillus levels to be reduced. Also, we assessed nutritional influences, such as breastfeeding, ingestion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the host′s microbiome and development of ADHD. Finally, we discussed the potential significance of Bifidobacterium as a biomarker for ADHD, the importance of preventing premature birth as prophylaxis and nutrition as a prospective therapeutic measurement against ADHD. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; microbiota-gut-brain axis; ADHD; attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder microbiome; microbiota-gut-brain axis; ADHD; attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
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Bull-Larsen, S.; Mohajeri, M.H. The Potential Influence of the Bacterial Microbiome on the Development and Progression of ADHD. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2805.

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