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The Potential Influence of the Bacterial Microbiome on the Development and Progression of ADHD

Institute of Anatomy, Department of medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2805;
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 11 November 2019 / Accepted: 13 November 2019 / Published: 17 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Central Nervous System)
The latest research cumulates staggering information about the correlation between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review aims to shed light on the potential influence of the microbiome on the development of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disease, attention-deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD). As the etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD are still unclear, finding viable biomarkers and effective treatment still represent a challenge. Therefore, we focused on factors that have been associated with a higher risk of developing ADHD, while simultaneously influencing the microbial composition. We reviewed the effect of a differing microbial makeup on neurotransmitter concentrations important in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Additionally, we deduced factors that correlate with a high prevalence of ADHD, while simultaneously affecting the gut microbiome, such as emergency c-sections, and premature birth as the former leads to a decrease of the gut microbial diversity and the latter causes neuroprotective Lactobacillus levels to be reduced. Also, we assessed nutritional influences, such as breastfeeding, ingestion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the host′s microbiome and development of ADHD. Finally, we discussed the potential significance of Bifidobacterium as a biomarker for ADHD, the importance of preventing premature birth as prophylaxis and nutrition as a prospective therapeutic measurement against ADHD. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiome; microbiota-gut-brain axis; ADHD; attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder microbiome; microbiota-gut-brain axis; ADHD; attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
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Bull-Larsen, S.; Mohajeri, M.H. The Potential Influence of the Bacterial Microbiome on the Development and Progression of ADHD. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2805.

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