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Open AccessArticle

Natural Choline from Egg Yolk Phospholipids Is More Efficiently Absorbed Compared with Choline Bitartrate; Outcomes of A Randomized Trial in Healthy Adults

AAK, Department of Special Nutrition, AAK Netherlands BV, Zaandijk, Kreeftstraat 1, 1544 CK Zaandijk, The Netherlands
Wageningen Food and Biobased Research, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands
Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Saarland University Hospital, D-66421 Homburg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2758;
Received: 7 October 2019 / Revised: 28 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 13 November 2019
Choline is a vitamin-like essential nutrient, important throughout one’s lifespan. Therefore, choline salts are added to infant formula, supplements and functional foods. However, if choline is present in a natural form, e.g. bound to phospholipids, it may be more efficiently absorbed. The study’s aim was to evaluate if choline uptake is improved after consumption of an egg yolk phospholipid drink, containing 3 g of phospholipid bound choline, compared to a control drink with 3 g of choline bitartrate. We performed a randomized, double blind, cross-over trial with 18 participants. Plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine concentrations were determined before and up to six hours after consumption of the drinks. The plasma choline response, as determined by the incremental area under the curve, was four times higher after consumption of the egg yolk phospholipid drink compared with the control drink (p < 0.01). Similar outcomes were also observed for choline’s main metabolites, betaine (p < 0.01) and dimethylglycine (p = 0.01). Consumption of natural choline from egg yolk phospholipids improved choline absorption compared to consumption of chemically produced choline bitartrate. This information is of relevance for the food industry, instead of adding choline-salts, adding choline from egg yolk phospholipids can improve choline uptake and positively impact health. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline; natural; phospholipids; DHA; absorption choline; natural; phospholipids; DHA; absorption
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Smolders, L.; de Wit, N.J.; Balvers, M.G.; Obeid, R.; Vissers, M.M.; Esser, D. Natural Choline from Egg Yolk Phospholipids Is More Efficiently Absorbed Compared with Choline Bitartrate; Outcomes of A Randomized Trial in Healthy Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2758.

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