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Article

Dietary Patterns and the Double Burden of Malnutrition in Mexican Adolescents: Results from ENSANUT-2006

1
Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen 6708WE, The Netherlands
2
Research Center of Nutrition and Health, National Institute for Public Health, Cuernavaca 62100, Mexico
3
Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City 01219, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112753
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 4 November 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 13 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Double Burden of Malnutrition)
Mexico is facing the double burden of malnutrition, and adolescents are not an exception. Diet plays an important role, both in causing overweight and undernutrition. This study aimed to describe the dietary patterns (DPs) of Mexican adolescents and to examine its association with nutritional status using data from adolescents aged 12–19 years (n = 7380) from the National Survey of Health and Nutrition (ENSANUT-2006). Principal component analysis was used to derivate the DPs. Associations between DP and nutritional status were determined by prevalence ratio (PR). Four DPs were identified: nontraditional and breakfast-type, Western, plant-based, and protein-rich. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in adolescents who scored high on the Western pattern (PR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.08–1.21) or on the plant-based pattern (PR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03–1.17). The Western pattern was positively associated with anemia in girls (PR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03–1.35), while the nontraditional and breakfast-type pattern was inversely associated with anemia in adolescents aged 12–15 years (PR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76–0.99) and in girls (PR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.97). The Western and plant-based patterns were simultaneously associated with overweight–obesity and at least one indicator of undernutrition. In the context of the double burden of malnutrition, dietary advice must consider malnutrition in all its forms. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; double burden; adolescence; malnutrition; overweight and obesity; anemia; stunting dietary patterns; double burden; adolescence; malnutrition; overweight and obesity; anemia; stunting
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zárate-Ortiz, A.G.; Melse-Boonstra, A.; Rodríguez-Ramírez, S.; Hernández-Cordero, S.; Feskens, E.J.M. Dietary Patterns and the Double Burden of Malnutrition in Mexican Adolescents: Results from ENSANUT-2006. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2753. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112753

AMA Style

Zárate-Ortiz AG, Melse-Boonstra A, Rodríguez-Ramírez S, Hernández-Cordero S, Feskens EJM. Dietary Patterns and the Double Burden of Malnutrition in Mexican Adolescents: Results from ENSANUT-2006. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11):2753. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112753

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zárate-Ortiz, Arli G., Alida Melse-Boonstra, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia Hernández-Cordero, and Edith J.M. Feskens 2019. "Dietary Patterns and the Double Burden of Malnutrition in Mexican Adolescents: Results from ENSANUT-2006" Nutrients 11, no. 11: 2753. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112753

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