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Timing of Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner. Effects on Obesity and Metabolic Risk

1
Department of Physiology, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia; Spain
2
IMIB-Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112624
Received: 20 September 2019 / Revised: 22 October 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published: 1 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from NUTRIMAD 2018)
(1) Background: Eating is fundamental to survival. Animals choose when to eat depending on food availability. The timing of eating can synchronize different organs and tissues that are related to food digestion, absorption, or metabolism, such as the stomach, gut, liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue. Studies performed in experimental animal models suggest that food intake is a major external synchronizer of peripheral clocks. Therefore, the timing of eating may be decisive in fat accumulation and mobilization and affect the effectiveness of weight loss treatments. (2) Results: We will review multiple studies about the timing of the three main meals of the day, breakfast, lunch and dinner, and its potential impact on metabolism, glucose tolerance, and obesity-related factors. We will also delve into several mechanisms that may be implicated in the obesogenic effect of eating late. Conclusion: Unusual eating time can produce a disruption in the circadian system that might lead to unhealthy consequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: circadian rhythms; food timing; melatonin; nutrigenetic; obesity; weight loss circadian rhythms; food timing; melatonin; nutrigenetic; obesity; weight loss
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lopez-Minguez, J.; Gómez-Abellán, P.; Garaulet, M. Timing of Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner. Effects on Obesity and Metabolic Risk. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2624. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112624

AMA Style

Lopez-Minguez J, Gómez-Abellán P, Garaulet M. Timing of Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner. Effects on Obesity and Metabolic Risk. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11):2624. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112624

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lopez-Minguez, Jesus, Purificación Gómez-Abellán, and Marta Garaulet. 2019. "Timing of Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner. Effects on Obesity and Metabolic Risk" Nutrients 11, no. 11: 2624. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112624

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