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Role of Citrate in Pathophysiology and Medical Management of Bone Diseases

1
Laboratory for Orthopedic Pathophysiology and Regenerative Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Via Pupilli 1, University of Bologna, 40136 Bologna, Italy
3
Nuclear Medicine, Bone Metabolic Unit, IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via F.Sforza 35, 20122 Milano, Italy
4
Maria Cecilia Hospital, GVM Care and Research, Via Corriera 1, 48033 Cotignola (RA), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2576; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112576
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 19 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 25 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Musculoskeletal Health)
Citrate is an intermediate in the “Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle” and is used by all aerobic organisms to produce usable chemical energy. It is a derivative of citric acid, a weak organic acid which can be introduced with diet since it naturally exists in a variety of fruits and vegetables, and can be consumed as a dietary supplement. The close association between this compound and bone was pointed out for the first time by Dickens in 1941, who showed that approximately 90% of the citrate bulk of the human body resides in mineralised tissues. Since then, the number of published articles has increased exponentially, and considerable progress in understanding how citrate is involved in bone metabolism has been made. This review summarises current knowledge regarding the role of citrate in the pathophysiology and medical management of bone disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone metabolism; bone mineral density; bone remodelling; citrate supplement; osteopenia; osteoporosis; kidney diseases bone metabolism; bone mineral density; bone remodelling; citrate supplement; osteopenia; osteoporosis; kidney diseases
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Granchi, D.; Baldini, N.; Ulivieri, F.M.; Caudarella, R. Role of Citrate in Pathophysiology and Medical Management of Bone Diseases. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2576.

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