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Article

Fatty Acid Profile and Antioxidant Status Fingerprint in Sarcopenic Elderly Patients: Role of Diet and Exercise

1
Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
2
Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3
Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Segrate, Italy
4
Clinical Nutrition and Endocrine Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona di Pavia, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
5
General Management, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona di Pavia, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
6
Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, Hyslop Sports Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
7
Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakhir Campus P.O. Box 32038, Kingdom of Bahrain
8
IRCCS Mondino Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy
9
Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2569; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112569
Received: 15 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status)
Plasma fatty acids (FAs) and oxidant status contribute to the etiology of sarcopenia in the elderly concurring to age-related muscle loss and elderly frailty through several mechanisms including changes in FA composition within the sarcolemma, promotion of chronic low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the FA profile and pro-antioxidant status in sarcopenic frail elderly patients enrolled in a nutritional and physical activity program and to evaluate their correlation with clinical markers. Moreover, the possible changes, produced after a short-term clinical protocol, were evaluated. Plasma and erythrocyte FA composition and pro-antioxidant status were analyzed in sarcopenic elderly subjects recruited for the randomized clinical study and treated with a placebo or dietary supplement, a personalized diet, and standardized physical activity. Subjects were tested before and after 30 days of treatment. Pearson correlations between biochemical parameters and patients’ characteristics at recruitment indicate interesting features of sarcopenic status such as negative correlation among the plasma FA profile, age, and physical characteristics. Physical activity and dietetic program alone for 30 days induced a decrease of saturated FA concentration with a significant increase of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid. Supplementation plus physical activity induced a significant decrease of linoleic acid, omega-6 polyunsaturated FAs, and an increase of stearic and oleic acid concentration. Moreover, glutathione reductase activity, which is an indicator of antioxidant status, significantly increased in erythrocytes. Changes over time between groups indicate significant differences for saturated FAs, which suggest that the amino acid supplementation restores FA levels that are consumed during physical activity. A relationship between FA and clinical/metabolic status revealed unique correlations and a specific metabolic and lipidomic fingerprint in sarcopenic elderly. The results indicate the positive beneficial role of supplementation and physical activity on plasma FA status and the antioxidant system as a co-adjuvant approach in sarcopenic, frail, elderly patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acid; antioxidants; elderly; sarcopenia; frailty; exercise; supplement fatty acid; antioxidants; elderly; sarcopenia; frailty; exercise; supplement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Corsetto, P.A.; Montorfano, G.; Klersy, C.; Massimino, L.; Infantino, V.; Iannello, G.; Anna Faliva, M.; Lukaski, H.; Perna, S.; Alalwan, T.A.; Rizzo, A.M.; Rondanelli, M. Fatty Acid Profile and Antioxidant Status Fingerprint in Sarcopenic Elderly Patients: Role of Diet and Exercise. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2569. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112569

AMA Style

Corsetto PA, Montorfano G, Klersy C, Massimino L, Infantino V, Iannello G, Anna Faliva M, Lukaski H, Perna S, Alalwan TA, Rizzo AM, Rondanelli M. Fatty Acid Profile and Antioxidant Status Fingerprint in Sarcopenic Elderly Patients: Role of Diet and Exercise. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11):2569. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112569

Chicago/Turabian Style

Corsetto, Paola A.; Montorfano, Gigliola; Klersy, Catherine; Massimino, Luca; Infantino, Vittoria; Iannello, Giancarlo; Anna Faliva, Milena; Lukaski, Henry; Perna, Simone; Alalwan, Tariq A.; Rizzo, Angela M.; Rondanelli, Mariangela. 2019. "Fatty Acid Profile and Antioxidant Status Fingerprint in Sarcopenic Elderly Patients: Role of Diet and Exercise" Nutrients 11, no. 11: 2569. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112569

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