It has been hypothesized that breakfast consumption is generally associated with healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as increased physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between breakfast consumption, adiposity measures and physical activity among adolescents. This investigation is a part of the Croatian physical activity in adolescence longitudinal study (CRO-PALS). This investigation is based on 802 participants (48% girls and 52% boys), aged between 15.2 and 16.0 years. Physical activity level and sedentary behaviors were assessed using the SHAPES questionnaire. Adiposity measures included the sum of four skinfolds, and multi-pass 24-h recall was used as the dietary assessment method. Participants who consumed breakfast had significantly lower body fat % (p
= 0.011 for boys; p
≤ 0.001 for girls) compared to breakfast non-consumers. Physical activity has no mediating effect in the association of breakfast consumption on adiposity in boys (Sobel’s t = −0.541; p
= 0.588) and girls (Sobel’s t = 1.020; p
= 0.307). Breakfast consumption was negatively associated with adiposity only in the boys at the highest tertile of physical activity (p
= 0.04). Physical activity has no mediating effect on the associations between breakfast consumption and adiposity, but has a moderation effect only in the most active boys. Breakfast consumption might exert beneficial effects only in the most active male adolescents, but not in the inactive ones.
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