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Open AccessArticle

Hydroxytyrosol, the Major Phenolic Compound of Olive Oil, as an Acute Therapeutic Strategy after Ischemic Stroke

1
Department of Experimental Biology, University of Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaén, Spain
2
Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition & Behaviour, Radboud Alzheimer Center, Department of Anatomy, Preclinical Imaging Centre PRIME, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102430
Received: 15 September 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 2 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
Stroke is one of the leading causes of adult disability worldwide. After ischemic stroke, damaged tissue surrounding the irreversibly damaged core of the infarct, the penumbra, is still salvageable and is therefore a target for acute therapeutic strategies. The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been shown to lower stroke risk. MD is characterized by increased intake of extra-virgin olive oil, of which hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the foremost phenolic component. This study investigates the effect of an HT-enriched diet directly after stroke on regaining motor and cognitive functioning, MRI parameters, neuroinflammation, and neurogenesis. Stroke mice on an HT diet showed increased strength in the forepaws, as well as improved short-term recognition memory probably due to improvement in functional connectivity (FC). Moreover, mice on an HT diet showed increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and also heightened expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), indicating a novel neurogenic potential of HT. This result was additionally accompanied by an enhanced transcription of the postsynaptic marker postsynaptic density protein 95 (Psd-95) and by a decreased ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1) level indicative of lower neuroinflammation. These results suggest that an HT-enriched diet could serve as a beneficial therapeutic approach to attenuate ischemic stroke-associated damage.
Keywords: stroke; hydroxytyrosol; dietary treatment; neuroinflammation; cerebral connectivity; cerebral blood flow; MRI; animal model stroke; hydroxytyrosol; dietary treatment; neuroinflammation; cerebral connectivity; cerebral blood flow; MRI; animal model
MDPI and ACS Style

Calahorra, J.; Shenk, J.; Wielenga, V.H.; Verweij, V.; Geenen, B.; Dederen, P.J.; Peinado, M.Á.; Siles, E.; Wiesmann, M.; Kiliaan, A.J. Hydroxytyrosol, the Major Phenolic Compound of Olive Oil, as an Acute Therapeutic Strategy after Ischemic Stroke. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2430.

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