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Open AccessArticle

Association Between Fatty Acids Profile and Cerebral Blood Flow: An Exploratory fNIRS Study on Children with and without ADHD

1
Scientific Institute, IRCCS E. Medea, 23842, Bosisio Parini, Italy
2
PhD Program in Neuroscience, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy
3
Pediatric Intermediate Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda—Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
4
DISSCO Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
5
SIGENP (Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition), via Libero Temolo 4 (Torre U8), 20126 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The first two authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102414
Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake, Brain Development and Learning)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) biostatus has been proposed as possible attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis biomarker. The present exploratory study aimed to investigate the association between PUFAs biostatus and cerebral cortex metabolism measured by functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) in a sample of children with and without ADHD. 24 children with ADHD and 22 typically developing (TD) peers, aged 8–14, were recruited. Linoleic, arachidonic, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids levels were evaluated in whole blood. All children underwent fNIRS while performing an n-back working memory task. Between groups comparisons revealed lower levels of arachidonic acid in children with ADHD and stronger NIRS signal in TD participants, especially when completing more difficult tasks. Correlations conducted between fNIRS activation and PUFA biostatus revealed several associations between hemodynamic changes in the frontoparietal regions and fatty acids profile across participants. This result was also confirmed by the multiple hierarchical regression analyses that remarked an inverse effect of eicosapentaenoic acid levels on oxyhemoglobin values in right frontoparietal region. Such preliminary findings, if confirmed, would suggest that PUFAs could play a role in atypical neurodevelopment. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyunsaturated fatty acids; NIRS; cerebral blood flow; ADHD; biomarker; attention; rehabilitation polyunsaturated fatty acids; NIRS; cerebral blood flow; ADHD; biomarker; attention; rehabilitation
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Grazioli, S.; Crippa, A.; Mauri, M.; Piazza, C.; Bacchetta, A.; Salandi, A.; Trabattoni, S.; Agostoni, C.; Molteni, M.; Nobile, M. Association Between Fatty Acids Profile and Cerebral Blood Flow: An Exploratory fNIRS Study on Children with and without ADHD. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2414.

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