Next Article in Journal
Supplementation with Saccharomyces boulardii Increases the Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Maximal Aerobic Speed Attained by Rats Subjected to an Incremental-Speed Exercise
Previous Article in Journal
Primary Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial to Explore the Effects of a High Chlorophyll Dietary Intervention to Reduce Colon Cancer Risk in Adults: The Meat and Three Greens (M3G) Feasibility Trial
Previous Article in Special Issue
Lactoferrin in Human Milk of Prolonged Lactation
Open AccessArticle

No Association between Glucocorticoid Diurnal Rhythm in Breastmilk and Infant Body Composition at 3 Months

1
Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Pediatric Endocrinology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1000-1183 Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Obesity Center CGG, Sophia Children’s Hospital, 3000-3099 Rotterdam, The Netherlands
3
Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Department of Pediatrics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1000-1183 Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to the article.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102351
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 24 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding: Short and Long-Term Benefits to Baby and Mother)
Objective: Glucocorticoids (GCs) in breastmilk have previously been associated with infant body growth and body composition. However, the diurnal rhythm of breastmilk GCs was not taken into account, and we therefore aimed to assess the associations between breastmilk GC rhythmicity at 1 month and growth and body composition at 3 months in infants. Methods: At 1 month postpartum, breastmilk GCs were collected over a 24-h period and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography at 3 months. Length and weight were collected at 1, 2, and 3 months. Results: In total, 42 healthy mother–infant pairs were included. No associations were found between breastmilk GC rhythmicity (area-under-the-curve increase and ground, maximum, and delta) and infant growth trajectories or body composition (fat and fat free mass index, fat%) at 3 months. Conclusions: This study did not find an association between breastmilk GC rhythmicity at 1 month and infant’s growth or body composition at 3 months. Therefore, this study suggests that previous observations linking breastmilk cortisol to changes in infant weight might be flawed by the lack of serial cortisol measurements and detailed information on body composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: cortisol; cortisone; growth; circadian rhythm; human milk cortisol; cortisone; growth; circadian rhythm; human milk
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hollanders, J.; Dijkstra, L.R.; van der Voorn, B.; Kouwenhoven, S.M.; Toorop, A.A.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J. No Association between Glucocorticoid Diurnal Rhythm in Breastmilk and Infant Body Composition at 3 Months. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2351.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop