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Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010004

A Guide to Applying the Sex-Gender Perspective to Nutritional Genomics

1
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
3
Department of Computer Languages and Systems, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón, Spain
4
School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
5
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
6
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
7
Oncology Department, Sagunto Hospital, 46500 Sagunto, Spain
8
Ophthalmology Research Unit “Santiago Grisolia”, Dr. Peset University Hospital, 46017 Valencia, Spain
9
Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa OftaRed, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
10
Nutrition and Genomics Laboratory, JM-USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 USA
11
Department of Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), 28029 Madrid, Spain
12
IMDEA Alimentación, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Diet Interactions)
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PDF [823 KB, uploaded 20 December 2018]
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Abstract

Precision nutrition aims to make dietary recommendations of a more personalized nature possible, to optimize the prevention or delay of a disease and to improve health. Therefore, the characteristics (including sex) of an individual have to be taken into account as well as a series of omics markers. The results of nutritional genomics studies are crucial to generate the evidence needed so that precision nutrition can be applied. Although sex is one of the fundamental variables for making recommendations, at present, the nutritional genomics studies undertaken have not analyzed, systematically and with a gender perspective, the heterogeneity/homogeneity in gene-diet interactions on the different phenotypes studied, thus there is little information available on this issue and needs to be improved. Here we argue for the need to incorporate the gender perspective in nutritional genomics studies, present the general context, analyze the differences between sex and gender, as well as the limitations to measuring them and to detecting specific sex-gene or sex-phenotype associations, both at the specific gene level or in genome-wide-association studies. We analyzed the main sex-specific gene-diet interactions published to date and their main limitations and present guidelines with recommendations to be followed when undertaking new nutritional genomics studies incorporating the gender perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: sex; gender; diet; nutritional genomics; nutrigenomics; precision nutrition sex; gender; diet; nutritional genomics; nutrigenomics; precision nutrition
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Corella, D.; Coltell, O.; Portolés, O.; Sotos-Prieto, M.; Fernández-Carrión, R.; Ramirez-Sabio, J.B.; Zanón-Moreno, V.; Mattei, J.; Sorlí, J.V.; Ordovas, J.M. A Guide to Applying the Sex-Gender Perspective to Nutritional Genomics. Nutrients 2019, 11, 4.

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