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Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010003

Dietary Patterns and Association with Obesity of Children Aged 6–17 Years in Medium and Small Cities in China: Findings from the CNHS 2010–2012

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 Nanwei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China
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Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract

Childhood obesity is associated with both near- and longer-term health implications. Few studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. The present study was designed to identify dietary patterns and their relationships with childhood obesity in medium and small cities. This is a cross-sectional study of children participants aged 6–17 years old in the 2010–2012 China Nutrition and Health Survey (CNHS). Socio-demographics, life-style, physical activity, anthropometric variables, and hundred-item food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were collected. Household income was classified as low, middle, and high. Traffic tools, from non-advanced to advanced, included walking, biking, bus, and car. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from FFQs. Two dietary patterns were identified: a Westernized pattern (i.e., high cakes, snacks, sugary beverages, aquatic products, red meat, fruits, and nuts) and a Traditional Chinese pattern (i.e., high cereals, tubers, legumes, fried cereal food, and vegetables). The Westernized pattern was positively correlated with energy intake, household income, traffic tools, and negative correlated with age and housework time. The Traditional Chinese pattern was positively correlated with age, energy intake, and housework time, and negatively correlated with household income and traffic tools. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Westernized pattern was found to be associated with BMI increment, yielding β coefficients (95% confidence interval, 95% CI) of 0.57 (0.40, 0.85) for the fourth quartile. In addition, the Westernized pattern was also found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR, 95% CI) of 1.49 (1.21, 1.84) from fully-adjusted confounders. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help to prevent obesity in Chinese children. The findings of this study could be used to guide the development of evidence-based preventive nutrition interventions to curb childhood obesity epidemic in small–medium cities in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; childhood; obesity; factor analysis; China dietary patterns; childhood; obesity; factor analysis; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, D.; Zhao, L.-Y.; Yu, D.-M.; Ju, L.-H.; Zhang, J.; Wang, J.-Z.; Zhao, W.-H. Dietary Patterns and Association with Obesity of Children Aged 6–17 Years in Medium and Small Cities in China: Findings from the CNHS 2010–2012. Nutrients 2019, 11, 3.

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