Next Article in Journal
Dry Bean Preferences and Attitudes among Midwest Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women
Previous Article in Journal
Ascorbic Acid Mitigates D-galactose-Induced Brain Aging by Increasing Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improving Memory Function
 
 
Article

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2014

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
2
College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
3
College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
4
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
5
Department of Nutritional Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
6
Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010177
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1–19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; omega-3 fatty acids; lifespan; oily fish; fish oil supplements eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; omega-3 fatty acids; lifespan; oily fish; fish oil supplements
MDPI and ACS Style

Thompson, M.; Hein, N.; Hanson, C.; Smith, L.M.; Anderson-Berry, A.; Richter, C.K.; Stessy Bisselou, K.; Kusi Appiah, A.; Kris-Etherton, P.; Skulas-Ray, A.C.; Nordgren, T.M. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2014. Nutrients 2019, 11, 177. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010177

AMA Style

Thompson M, Hein N, Hanson C, Smith LM, Anderson-Berry A, Richter CK, Stessy Bisselou K, Kusi Appiah A, Kris-Etherton P, Skulas-Ray AC, Nordgren TM. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2014. Nutrients. 2019; 11(1):177. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010177

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thompson, Maranda, Nicholas Hein, Corrine Hanson, Lynette M. Smith, Ann Anderson-Berry, Chesney K. Richter, Karl Stessy Bisselou, Adams Kusi Appiah, Penny Kris-Etherton, Ann C. Skulas-Ray, and Tara M. Nordgren. 2019. "Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2014" Nutrients 11, no. 1: 177. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010177

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop