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Ascorbic Acid Mitigates D-galactose-Induced Brain Aging by Increasing Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improving Memory Function

1
Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
Center for Neuroscience, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Korea
3
Department of Science in Korean Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Plus Program, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
4
Department of Cancer Preventive Material Development, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
5
Ginsentology Research Laboratory and Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010176
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract

Ascorbic acid is essential for normal brain development and homeostasis. However, the effect of ascorbic acid on adult brain aging has not been determined. Long-term treatment with high levels of D-galactose (D-gal) induces brain aging by accumulated oxidative stress. In the present study, mice were subcutaneously administered with D-gal (150 mg/kg/day) for 10 weeks; from the seventh week, ascorbic acid (150 mg/kg/day) was orally co-administered for four weeks. Although D-gal administration alone reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions, co-treatment of ascorbic acid with D-gal effectively prevented D-gal-induced reduced hippocampal neurogenesis through improved cellular proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and neuronal maturation. Long-term D-gal treatment also reduced expression levels of synaptic plasticity-related markers, i.e., synaptophysin and phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, while ascorbic acid prevented the reduction in the hippocampus. Furthermore, ascorbic acid ameliorated D-gal-induced downregulation of superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, sirtuin1, caveolin-1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and upregulation of interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the hippocampus. Ascorbic acid-mediated hippocampal restoration from D-gal-induced impairment was associated with an enhanced hippocampus-dependent memory function. Therefore, ascorbic acid ameliorates D-gal-induced impairments through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and it could be an effective dietary supplement against adult brain aging. View Full-Text
Keywords: ascorbic acid; D-galactose; hippocampus; brain aging; neurogenesis ascorbic acid; D-galactose; hippocampus; brain aging; neurogenesis
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Nam, S.M.; Seo, M.; Seo, J.-S.; Rhim, H.; Nahm, S.-S.; Cho, I.-H.; Chang, B.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Choi, S.-H.; Nah, S.-Y. Ascorbic Acid Mitigates D-galactose-Induced Brain Aging by Increasing Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improving Memory Function. Nutrients 2019, 11, 176.

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