Ascorbic Acid Mitigates D-galactose-Induced Brain Aging by Increasing Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improving Memory Function
AbstractAscorbic acid is essential for normal brain development and homeostasis. However, the effect of ascorbic acid on adult brain aging has not been determined. Long-term treatment with high levels of D-galactose (D-gal) induces brain aging by accumulated oxidative stress. In the present study, mice were subcutaneously administered with D-gal (150 mg/kg/day) for 10 weeks; from the seventh week, ascorbic acid (150 mg/kg/day) was orally co-administered for four weeks. Although D-gal administration alone reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions, co-treatment of ascorbic acid with D-gal effectively prevented D-gal-induced reduced hippocampal neurogenesis through improved cellular proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and neuronal maturation. Long-term D-gal treatment also reduced expression levels of synaptic plasticity-related markers, i.e., synaptophysin and phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, while ascorbic acid prevented the reduction in the hippocampus. Furthermore, ascorbic acid ameliorated D-gal-induced downregulation of superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, sirtuin1, caveolin-1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and upregulation of interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the hippocampus. Ascorbic acid-mediated hippocampal restoration from D-gal-induced impairment was associated with an enhanced hippocampus-dependent memory function. Therefore, ascorbic acid ameliorates D-gal-induced impairments through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and it could be an effective dietary supplement against adult brain aging. View Full-Text
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Nam, S.M.; Seo, M.; Seo, J.-S.; Rhim, H.; Nahm, S.-S.; Cho, I.-H.; Chang, B.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Choi, S.-H.; Nah, S.-Y. Ascorbic Acid Mitigates D-galactose-Induced Brain Aging by Increasing Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improving Memory Function. Nutrients 2019, 11, 176.
Nam SM, Seo M, Seo J-S, Rhim H, Nahm S-S, Cho I-H, Chang B-J, Kim H-J, Choi S-H, Nah S-Y. Ascorbic Acid Mitigates D-galactose-Induced Brain Aging by Increasing Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improving Memory Function. Nutrients. 2019; 11(1):176.Chicago/Turabian Style
Nam, Sung M.; Seo, Misun; Seo, Jin-Seok; Rhim, Hyewhon; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Chang, Byung-Joon; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Choi, Sun-Hye; Nah, Seung-Yeol. 2019. "Ascorbic Acid Mitigates D-galactose-Induced Brain Aging by Increasing Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improving Memory Function." Nutrients 11, no. 1: 176.
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