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Open AccessArticle

Sodium and Potassium Intake, Knowledge Attitudes and Behaviour Towards Salt Consumption Amongst Adults in Podgorica, Montenegro

1
World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Nutrition, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, “Federico II” University of Naples Medical School, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
World Health Organization Regional Office, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
4
Center for Laboratory Diagnostics, Primary Health Care Centre, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
5
World Health Organization European Office for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, Moscow 229994, Russia
6
World Health Organization European Office for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
7
Statistical Office of Montenegro, MONSTAT, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
8
Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010160
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Sodium Research to Improve Human Health)
Excess salt and inadequate potassium intakes are associated with high cardiovascular disease (CVD). In Montenegro, CVD is the leading cause of death and disability. There is no survey that has directly measured salt and potassium consumption in Montenegro. The aim is to estimate population salt and potassium intakes and explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB), amongst the adult population of Podgorica. Random samples of adults were obtained from primary care centres. Participants attended a screening including demographic, anthropometric and physical measurements. Dietary salt and potassium intakes were assessed by 24 h urinary sodium (UNa) and potassium (UK) excretions. Creatinine was measured. KAB was collected by questionnaire. Six hundred and thirty-nine (285 men, 25–65 years) were included in the analysis (response rate 63%). Mean UNa was 186.5 (SD 90.3) mmoL/day, equivalent to 11.6 g of salt/day and potassium excretion 62.5 (26.2) mmoL/day, equivalent to 3.2 g/day. Only 7% of them had a salt intake below the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended target of 5 g/day and 13% ate enough potassium (>90 mmoL/day). The majority (86%) knew that high salt causes ill-health. However, only 44% thought it would be useful to reduce consumption. Salt consumption is high and potassium consumption is low, in men and women living in Podgorica. View Full-Text
Keywords: Montenegro; salt; sodium; potassium Montenegro; salt; sodium; potassium
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D’Elia, L.; Brajović, M.; Klisic, A.; Breda, J.; Jewell, J.; Cadjenović, V.; Cappuccio, F.P. Sodium and Potassium Intake, Knowledge Attitudes and Behaviour Towards Salt Consumption Amongst Adults in Podgorica, Montenegro. Nutrients 2019, 11, 160.

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