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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091218

Comparison of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry with an Ion Selective Electrode to Determine Sodium and Potassium Levels in Human Milk

School of Molecular Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, 6009 WA, Australia
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Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
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Abstract

Sodium (Na), potassium (K), and the ratio Na:K in human milk (HM) may be useful biomarkers to indicate secretory activation or inflammation in the breast. Previously, these elements have been measured in a laboratory setting requiring expensive equipment and relatively large amounts of HM. The aim of this study was to compare measurements of Na and K in HM using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with small portable ion selective electrode probes for Na and K. Sixty-five lactating women donated 5 mL samples of HM. Samples were analyzed with two ion selective probes (Na and K) and also ICP-OES. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and Bland–Altman plots. Na concentrations were not significantly different when measured with ion selective electrode (6.18 ± 2.47mM; range: 3.59–19.8) and ICP-OES (5.91 ± 3.37 mM; range: 2.59–21.5) (p = 0.20). K concentrations measured using the ion selective electrode (11.7 ± 2.21 mM: range: 7.69–18.1) and ICP-OES (11.1 ± 1.55 mM: range: 7.91–15.2) were significantly different (p = 0.01). However, the mean differences of 0.65 mM would not be clinically relevant when testing at point of care. Compared to ICP-OES, ion selective electrode is sufficiently accurate to detect changes in concentrations of Na and K in HM associated with secretory activation and inflammation in the mammary gland. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; potassium; sodium; ICP-OES; ion selective electrode human milk; potassium; sodium; ICP-OES; ion selective electrode
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Lai, C.T.; Gardner, H.; Geddes, D. Comparison of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry with an Ion Selective Electrode to Determine Sodium and Potassium Levels in Human Milk. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1218.

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