- freely available
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091177
- ‘Total sugars’ are defined as the total amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) from all food sources, without distinguishing between free and non-free sugars. The sugar declared on nutritional panels of food labels always refers to ‘total sugars’ .
- ‘Added sugars’ refer to sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch hydrolysates (glucose syrup, high-fructose syrup) and other isolated sugar preparations used as such, or added during food preparation and manufacturing, according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) , and does not capture the sugars present in unsweetened fruit juice or honey .
- ‘Free sugars’, a term introduced by WHO, refer to all sugars that are added during food manufacturing and preparation as well as sugars that are naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices, and fruit concentrates . In a variant to this, the UK has adapted the ‘free sugars’ definition to exclude the ‘lactose’ in milk and the sugars within the cellular structure of foods (particularly fruits and vegetables) , whereas this distinction is not specified by WHO .
- ‘Non-milk extrinsic sugars’ (NMES) is a term that has been used for some decades in the UK and includes sugars not contained within the cellular walls of plants, all sugars added to foods, and 50% of the sugars in canned, stewed, dried, or preserved fruits .
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Principles of Approach
- Added sugars (EFSA): ‘Sugar-table’ + ‘Sugar-other’
- Free sugars (WHO): ‘Sugar-table’ + ‘Sugar-other’ + ‘Sugar-honey’ + ‘Sugar-fruit juice’
- Free sugars (SACN): ‘Sugar-table’ + ‘Sugar-other’ + ‘Sugar-honey’ + ‘Sugar-fruit juice’ + ‘Sugar-pureed fruit’
- NMES: ‘Sugar-table’ + ‘Sugar-other’ + ‘Sugar-honey’ + ‘Sugar-fruit juice’ + 50% of ‘Sugar-stewed fruit’ + 50% of ‘Sugar-dried fruit’
2.2. Methodology for Estimating Sugar Components of Foods: Approach for the UK NDNS RP
2.3. Additional Information on the UK NDNS Nutrient Databank and FSA Recipes Database
2.3.1. UK NDNS Nutrient Databank
2.3.2. Recipes Database
2.4. Inter-Rater Repeatability
3.1. Estimation of Added Sugar and Free Sugar Content of Foods Based on Disaggregation Methodology
3.1.1. Inter-Rater Repeatability
4.1. Estimating the Added Sugar and Free Sugar Content of Foods
4.2. Repeatability and Validity
4.3. Sources of Free Sugars
4.4. Strength of the Method
4.5. Limitation of the Method
Conflicts of Interest
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|Data Analyst 1 (g/100 g)||Data Analyst 2 (g/100 g)||Difference of Means (g)||95% Confidence Interval||p|
|Added sugar and free sugar combinations|
|Added sugars 1||19.72||19.83||−0.11||−0.69,||0.47||0.70|
|Free sugars (WHO) 2||20.91||21.04||−0.13||−0.65,||0.40||0.63|
|Free sugars (SACN) 3||21.68||21.77||−0.09||−0.66,||0.48||0.75|
|Known Formulation * (g/100 g)||Estimation (g/100 g)||Difference of Means (g)||95% Confidence Interval||p|
|Added sugars and free sugars combinations|
|Added sugars 1||19.72||19.75||−0.03||−0.30,||0.24||0.85|
|Free sugars (WHO) 2||20.91||20.88||0.03||−0.14,||0.21||0.70|
|Free sugars (SACN) 3||21.68||21.60||0.08||−0.06,||0.21||0.25|
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