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Open AccessArticle

TGF-β2, EGF, and FGF21 Growth Factors Present in Breast Milk Promote Mesenteric Lymph Node Lymphocytes Maturation in Suckling Rats

1
Physiology Section, Department of Biochemistry and Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Science, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Nutrition and Food Safety Research Institute (INSA·UB), 08921 Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091171
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Immune Function)
Breast milk, due to its large number of nutrients and bioactive factors, contributes to optimal development and immune maturation in early life. In this study, we aimed to assess the influence of some growth factors present in breast milk, such as transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), on the immune response development. Newborn Wistar rats were supplemented daily with TGF-β2, EGF, or FGF21, throughout the suckling period. At day 14 and 21 of life, lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were isolated, immunophenotyped, and cultured to evaluate their ability to proliferate and release cytokines. The main results demonstrated that supplementation with TGF-β2, EGF, or FGF21 modified the lymphocyte composition in MLNs. At day 14, all supplementations were able to induce a lower percentage of natural killer (NK) cells with the immature phenotype (CD8+), and they reduced the CD8αα/CD8αβ ratio at day 21. Moreover, the cytokine pattern was modified by the three treatments, with a down regulation of interleukin (IL)-13 secretion. These results showed the contribution of these growth factors in the lymphocytes MLNs immune maturation during the neonatal period. View Full-Text
Keywords: growth factors; breast milk; immunonutrition; cytokines; lymphocytes growth factors; breast milk; immunonutrition; cytokines; lymphocytes
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Torres-Castro, P.; Abril-Gil, M.; Rodríguez-Lagunas, M.J.; Castell, M.; Pérez-Cano, F.J.; Franch, À. TGF-β2, EGF, and FGF21 Growth Factors Present in Breast Milk Promote Mesenteric Lymph Node Lymphocytes Maturation in Suckling Rats. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1171.

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