This current study aimed to elucidate the effects and possible underlying mechanisms of long-term supplementation with dietary luteolin (LU)-enriched artichoke leaf (AR) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and its complications (e.g., dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) in C57BL/6N mice. The mice were fed a normal diet, an HFD, or an HFD plus AR or LU for 16 weeks. In the HFD-fed mice, AR decreased the adiposity and dyslipidemia by decreasing lipogenesis while increasing fatty acid oxidation, which contributed to better hepatic steatosis. LU also prevented adiposity and hepatic steatosis by suppressing lipogenesis while increasing biliary sterol excretion. Moreover, AR and LU prevented insulin sensitivity by decreasing the level of plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide and activity of hepatic glucogenic enzymes, which may be linked to the lowering of inflammation as evidenced by the reduced plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Although the anti-metabolic syndrome effects of AR and LU were similar, the anti-adiposity and anti-dyslipidemic effects of AR were more pronounced. These results in mice with diet-induced obesity suggest that long-term supplementation with AR can prevent adiposity and related metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and inflammation.
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