Development of Vitamin D Toxicity from Overcorrection of Vitamin D Deficiency: A Review of Case Reports
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080953
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
Over the past two decades, vitamin D level measurements have become some of the most frequently ordered tests in the laboratory. This increase is due to a growing awareness of widespread vitamin D deficiency and scientific data suggesting the beneficial effects of vitamin D in various diseases. A literature search was carried out in PubMed for cases reporting vitamin D intoxication and overdose. Thirteen articles were included in this review. Intoxication was severe in the reported cases. Patients presented with serum vitamin D concentrations ranging between 150 and 1220 ng/mL and serum calcium concentrations between 11.1 and 23.1 mg/dL. Most of the reported patients showed symptoms of vitamin D toxicity such as vomiting, dehydration, pain, and loss of appetite. The underlying causes included manufacturing errors, overdosing by patients or prescribers, and combinations of these factors. Our literature search highlights the fact that even though vitamin D intoxication is rare, it does occur and therefore patients and prescribers should be more cognizant of the potential dangers of vitamin D overdose.